Declan O’Sullivan


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Adversarial Attacks on Knowledge Graph Embeddings via Instance Attribution Methods
Peru Bhardwaj | John Kelleher | Luca Costabello | Declan O’Sullivan
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Despite the widespread use of Knowledge Graph Embeddings (KGE), little is known about the security vulnerabilities that might disrupt their intended behaviour. We study data poisoning attacks against KGE models for link prediction. These attacks craft adversarial additions or deletions at training time to cause model failure at test time. To select adversarial deletions, we propose to use the model-agnostic instance attribution methods from Interpretable Machine Learning, which identify the training instances that are most influential to a neural model’s predictions on test instances. We use these influential triples as adversarial deletions. We further propose a heuristic method to replace one of the two entities in each influential triple to generate adversarial additions. Our experiments show that the proposed strategies outperform the state-of-art data poisoning attacks on KGE models and improve the MRR degradation due to the attacks by up to 62% over the baselines.

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Poisoning Knowledge Graph Embeddings via Relation Inference Patterns
Peru Bhardwaj | John Kelleher | Luca Costabello | Declan O’Sullivan
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We study the problem of generating data poisoning attacks against Knowledge Graph Embedding (KGE) models for the task of link prediction in knowledge graphs. To poison KGE models, we propose to exploit their inductive abilities which are captured through the relationship patterns like symmetry, inversion and composition in the knowledge graph. Specifically, to degrade the model’s prediction confidence on target facts, we propose to improve the model’s prediction confidence on a set of decoy facts. Thus, we craft adversarial additions that can improve the model’s prediction confidence on decoy facts through different inference patterns. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed poisoning attacks outperform state-of-art baselines on four KGE models for two publicly available datasets. We also find that the symmetry pattern based attacks generalize across all model-dataset combinations which indicates the sensitivity of KGE models to this pattern.


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Global Intelligent Content: Active Curation of Language Resources using Linked Data
David Lewis | Rob Brennan | Leroy Finn | Dominic Jones | Alan Meehan | Declan O’Sullivan | Sebastian Hellmann | Felix Sasaki
Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'14)

As language resources start to become available in linked data formats, it becomes relevant to consider how linked data interoperability can play a role in active language processing workflows as well as for more static language resource publishing. This paper proposes that linked data may have a valuable role to play in tracking the use and generation of language resources in such workflows in order to assess and improve the performance of the language technologies that use the resources, based on feedback from the human involvement typically required within such processes. We refer to this as Active Curation of the language resources, since it is performed systematically over language processing workflows to continuously improve the quality of the resource in specific applications, rather than via dedicated curation steps. We use modern localisation workflows, i.e. assisted by machine translation and text analytics services, to explain how linked data can support such active curation. By referencing how a suitable linked data vocabulary can be assembled by combining existing linked data vocabularies and meta-data from other multilingual content processing annotations and tool exchange standards we aim to demonstrate the relative ease with which active curation can be deployed more broadly.