Deqing Yang


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Improving Recall of Large Language Models: A Model Collaboration Approach for Relational Triple Extraction
Zepeng Ding | Wenhao Huang | Jiaqing Liang | Yanghua Xiao | Deqing Yang
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Relation triple extraction, which outputs a set of triples from long sentences, plays a vital role in knowledge acquisition. Large language models can accurately extract triples from simple sentences through few-shot learning or fine-tuning when given appropriate instructions. However, they often miss out when extracting from complex sentences. In this paper, we design an evaluation-filtering framework that integrates large language models with small models for relational triple extraction tasks. The framework includes an evaluation model that can extract related entity pairs with high precision. We propose a simple labeling principle and a deep neural network to build the model, embedding the outputs as prompts into the extraction process of the large model. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate that the proposed method can assist large language models in obtaining more accurate extraction results, especially from complex sentences containing multiple relational triples. Our evaluation model can also be embedded into traditional extraction models to enhance their extraction precision from complex sentences.

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Negation Triplet Extraction with Syntactic Dependency and Semantic Consistency
Yuchen Shi | Deqing Yang | Jingping Liu | Yanghua Xiao | Zongyu Wang | Huimin Xu
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Previous works of negation understanding mainly focus on negation cue detection and scope resolution, without identifying negation subject which is also significant to the downstream tasks. In this paper, we propose a new negation triplet extraction (NTE) task which aims to extract negation subject along with negation cue and scope. To achieve NTE, we devise a novel Syntax&Semantic-Enhanced Negation Extraction model, namely SSENE, which is built based on a generative pretrained language model (PLM) of Encoder-Decoder architecture with a multi-task learning framework. Specifically, the given sentence’s syntactic dependency tree is incorporated into the PLM’s encoder to discover the correlations between the negation subject, cue and scope. Moreover, the semantic consistency between the sentence and the extracted triplet is ensured by an auxiliary task learning. Furthermore, we have constructed a high-quality Chinese dataset NegComment based on the users’ reviews from the real-world platform of Meituan, upon which our evaluations show that SSENE achieves the best NTE performance compared to the baselines. Our ablation and case studies also demonstrate that incorporating the syntactic information helps the PLM’s recognize the distant dependency between the subject and cue, and the auxiliary task learning is helpful to extract the negation triplets with more semantic consistency. We further demonstrate that SSENE is also competitive on the traditional CDSR task.

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ToNER: Type-oriented Named Entity Recognition with Generative Language Model
Guochao Jiang | Ziqin Luo | Yuchen Shi | Dixuan Wang | Jiaqing Liang | Deqing Yang
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

In recent years, the fine-tuned generative models have been proven more powerful than the previous tagging-based or span-based models on named entity recognition (NER) task. It has also been found that the information related to entities, such as entity types, can prompt a model to achieve NER better. However, it is not easy to determine the entity types indeed existing in the given sentence in advance, and inputting too many potential entity types would distract the model inevitably. To exploit entity types’ merit on promoting NER task, in this paper we propose a novel NER framework, namely ToNER based on a generative model. In ToNER, a type matching model is proposed at first to identify the entity types most likely to appear in the sentence. Then, we append a multiple binary classification task to fine-tune the generative model’s encoder, so as to generate the refined representation of the input sentence. Moreover, we add an auxiliary task for the model to discover the entity types which further fine-tunes the model to output more accurate results. Our extensive experiments on some NER benchmarks verify the effectiveness of our proposed strategies in ToNER that are oriented towards entity types’ exploitation.


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Beneath Surface Similarity: Large Language Models Make Reasonable Scientific Analogies after Structure Abduction
Siyu Yuan | Jiangjie Chen | Xuyang Ge | Yanghua Xiao | Deqing Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

The vital role of analogical reasoning in human cognition allows us to grasp novel concepts by linking them with familiar ones through shared relational structures. Despite the attention previous research has given to word analogies, this work suggests that Large Language Models (LLMs) often overlook the structures that underpin these analogies, raising questions about the efficacy of word analogies as a measure of analogical reasoning skills akin to human cognition. In response to this, our paper introduces a task of analogical structure abduction, grounded in cognitive psychology, designed to abduce structures that form an analogy between two systems. In support of this task, we establish a benchmark called SCAR, containing 400 scientific analogies from 13 distinct fields, tailored for evaluating analogical reasoning with structure abduction. The empirical evidence underlines the continued challenges faced by LLMs, including ChatGPT and GPT-4, in mastering this task, signifying the need for future exploration to enhance their abilities.

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Distilling Script Knowledge from Large Language Models for Constrained Language Planning
Siyu Yuan | Jiangjie Chen | Ziquan Fu | Xuyang Ge | Soham Shah | Charles Jankowski | Yanghua Xiao | Deqing Yang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In everyday life, humans often plan their actions by following step-by-step instructions in the form of goal-oriented scripts. Previous work has exploited language models (LMs) to plan for abstract goals of stereotypical activities (e.g., “make a cake”), but leaves more specific goals with multi-facet constraints understudied (e.g., “make a cake for diabetics”). In this paper, we define the task of constrained language planning for the first time. We propose an over-generate-then-filter approach to improve large language models (LLMs) on this task, and use it to distill a novel constrained language planning dataset, Coscript, which consists of 55,000 scripts. Empirical results demonstrate that our method significantly improves the constrained language planning ability of LLMs, especially on constraint faithfulness. Furthermore, Coscript is demonstrated to be quite effective in endowing smaller LMs with constrained language planning ability.

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Causality-aware Concept Extraction based on Knowledge-guided Prompting
Siyu Yuan | Deqing Yang | Jinxi Liu | Shuyu Tian | Jiaqing Liang | Yanghua Xiao | Rui Xie
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Concepts benefit natural language understanding but are far from complete in existing knowledge graphs (KGs). Recently, pre-trained language models (PLMs) have been widely used in text-based concept extraction (CE). However, PLMs tend to mine the co-occurrence associations from massive corpus as pre-trained knowledge rather than the real causal effect between tokens. As a result, the pre-trained knowledge confounds PLMs to extract biased concepts based on spurious co-occurrence correlations, inevitably resulting in low precision. In this paper, through the lens of a Structural Causal Model (SCM), we propose equipping the PLM-based extractor with a knowledge-guided prompt as an intervention to alleviate concept bias. The prompt adopts the topic of the given entity from the existing knowledge in KGs to mitigate the spurious co-occurrence correlations between entities and biased concepts. Our extensive experiments on representative multilingual KG datasets justify that our proposed prompt can effectively alleviate concept bias and improve the performance of PLM-based CE models.


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Relation-Specific Attentions over Entity Mentions for Enhanced Document-Level Relation Extraction
Jiaxin Yu | Deqing Yang | Shuyu Tian
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Compared with traditional sentence-level relation extraction, document-level relation extraction is a more challenging task where an entity in a document may be mentioned multiple times and associated with multiple relations. However, most methods of document-level relation extraction do not distinguish between mention-level features and entity-level features, and just apply simple pooling operation for aggregating mention-level features into entity-level features. As a result, the distinct semantics between the different mentions of an entity are overlooked. To address this problem, we propose RSMAN in this paper which performs selective attentions over different entity mentions with respect to candidate relations. In this manner, the flexible and relation-specific representations of entities are obtained which indeed benefit relation classification. Our extensive experiments upon two benchmark datasets show that our RSMAN can bring significant improvements for some backbone models to achieve state-of-the-art performance, especially when an entity have multiple mentions in the document.

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Generative Entity Typing with Curriculum Learning
Siyu Yuan | Deqing Yang | Jiaqing Liang | Zhixu Li | Jinxi Liu | Jingyue Huang | Yanghua Xiao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Entity typing aims to assign types to the entity mentions in given texts. The traditional classification-based entity typing paradigm has two unignorable drawbacks: 1) it fails to assign an entity to the types beyond the predefined type set, and 2) it can hardly handle few-shot and zero-shot situations where many long-tail types only have few or even no training instances. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a novel generative entity typing (GET) paradigm: given a text with an entity mention, the multiple types for the role that the entity plays in the text are generated with a pre-trained language model (PLM). However, PLMs tend to generate coarse-grained types after fine-tuning upon the entity typing dataset. In addition, only the heterogeneous training data consisting of a small portion of human-annotated data and a large portion of auto-generated but low-quality data are provided for model training. To tackle these problems, we employ curriculum learning (CL) to train our GET model on heterogeneous data, where the curriculum could be self-adjusted with the self-paced learning according to its comprehension of the type granularity and data heterogeneity. Our extensive experiments upon the datasets of different languages and downstream tasks justify the superiority of our GET model over the state-of-the-art entity typing models. The code has been released on

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Improving Continual Relation Extraction through Prototypical Contrastive Learning
Chengwei Hu | Deqing Yang | Haoliang Jin | Zhen Chen | Yanghua Xiao
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Continual relation extraction (CRE) aims to extract relations towards the continuous and iterative arrival of new data, of which the major challenge is the catastrophic forgetting of old tasks. In order to alleviate this critical problem for enhanced CRE performance, we propose a novel Continual Relation Extraction framework with Contrastive Learning, namely CRECL, which is built with a classification network and a prototypical contrastive network to achieve the incremental-class learning of CRE. Specifically, in the contrastive network a given instance is contrasted with the prototype of each candidate relations stored in the memory module. Such contrastive learning scheme ensures the data distributions of all tasks more distinguishable, so as to alleviate the catastrophic forgetting further. Our experiment results not only demonstrate our CRECL’s advantage over the state-of-the-art baselines on two public datasets, but also verify the effectiveness of CRECL’s contrastive learning on improving performance.


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Refining Sample Embeddings with Relation Prototypes to Enhance Continual Relation Extraction
Li Cui | Deqing Yang | Jiaxin Yu | Chengwei Hu | Jiayang Cheng | Jingjie Yi | Yanghua Xiao
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Continual learning has gained increasing attention in recent years, thanks to its biological interpretation and efficiency in many real-world applications. As a typical task of continual learning, continual relation extraction (CRE) aims to extract relations between entities from texts, where the samples of different relations are delivered into the model continuously. Some previous works have proved that storing typical samples of old relations in memory can help the model keep a stable understanding of old relations and avoid forgetting them. However, most methods heavily depend on the memory size in that they simply replay these memorized samples in subsequent tasks. To fully utilize memorized samples, in this paper, we employ relation prototype to extract useful information of each relation. Specifically, the prototype embedding for a specific relation is computed based on memorized samples of this relation, which is collected by K-means algorithm. The prototypes of all observed relations at current learning stage are used to re-initialize a memory network to refine subsequent sample embeddings, which ensures the model’s stable understanding on all observed relations when learning a new task. Compared with previous CRE models, our model utilizes the memory information sufficiently and efficiently, resulting in enhanced CRE performance. Our experiments show that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art CRE models and has great advantage in avoiding catastrophic forgetting. The code and datasets are released on