Dimitris Alikaniotis


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Characterizing the Confidence of Large Language Model-Based Automatic Evaluation Metrics
Rickard Stureborg | Dimitris Alikaniotis | Yoshi Suhara
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

There has recently been a growing interest in using Large Language Models (LLMs) to evaluate NLP tasks automatically. Considerable research effort has been put into improving such systems towards achieving high correlations with human judgement. However, it is still unclear what level of correlation is good enough for practical applications of LLM-based automatic evaluation systems. This paper characterizes these LLM evaluators’ confidence in ranking candidate NLP models and develops a configurable Monte Carlo simulation method. We show that even automatic metrics with low correlation with human judgement can reach high-confidence rankings of candidate models with reasonable evaluation set sizes (100s of examples). Further, we describe tradeoff curves between the LLM evaluator performance (i.e., correlation with humans) and evaluation set size; loss in correlation can be compensated with modest increases in the evaluation set size. We validate our results on RoSE, a text summarization dataset, and find our estimates of confidence align with empirical observations.Code available at https://github.com/rickardstureborg/llm-eval-confidence

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Source Identification in Abstractive Summarization
Yoshi Suhara | Dimitris Alikaniotis
Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Neural abstractive summarization models make summaries in an end-to-end manner, and little is known about how the source information is actually converted into summaries. In this paper, we define input sentences that contain essential information in the generated summary as source sentences and study how abstractive summaries are made by analyzing the source sentences. To this end, we annotate source sentences for reference summaries and system summaries generated by PEGASUS on document-summary pairs sampled from the CNN/DailyMail and XSum datasets. We also formulate automatic source sentence detection and compare multiple methods to establish a strong baseline for the task. Experimental results show that the perplexity-based method performs well in highly abstractive settings, while similarity-based methods perform robustly in relatively extractive settings.

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mEdIT: Multilingual Text Editing via Instruction Tuning
Vipul Raheja | Dimitris Alikaniotis | Vivek Kulkarni | Bashar Alhafni | Dhruv Kumar
Proceedings of the 2024 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We introduce mEdIT, a multi-lingual extension to CoEdIT – the recent state-of-the-art text editing models for writing assistance. mEdIT models are trained by fine-tuning multi-lingual large, pre-trained language models (LLMs) via instruction tuning. They are designed to take instructions from the user specifying the attributes of the desired text in the form of natural language instructions, such as “Grammatik korrigieren” (German) or “이 텍스 트를 단순화” (Korean). We build mEdIT by curating data from multiple publicly available human-annotated text editing datasets for three text editing tasks (Grammatical Error Correction (GEC), Text Simplification, and Paraphrasing) across diverse languages belonging to six different language families. We detail the design and training of mEdIT models and demonstrate their strong performance on many multi-lingual text editing benchmarks against other multilingual LLMs. We also find that mEdIT generalizes effectively to new languages over multilingual baselines. We publicly release our data, code, and trained models.


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Adversarial Grammatical Error Correction
Vipul Raheja | Dimitris Alikaniotis
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Recent works in Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) have leveraged the progress in Neural Machine Translation (NMT), to learn rewrites from parallel corpora of grammatically incorrect and corrected sentences, achieving state-of-the-art results. At the same time, Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have been successful in generating realistic texts across many different tasks by learning to directly minimize the difference between human-generated and synthetic text. In this work, we present an adversarial learning approach to GEC, using the generator-discriminator framework. The generator is a Transformer model, trained to produce grammatically correct sentences given grammatically incorrect ones. The discriminator is a sentence-pair classification model, trained to judge a given pair of grammatically incorrect-correct sentences on the quality of grammatical correction. We pre-train both the discriminator and the generator on parallel texts and then fine-tune them further using a policy gradient method that assigns high rewards to sentences which could be true corrections of the grammatically incorrect text. Experimental results on FCE, CoNLL-14, and BEA-19 datasets show that Adversarial-GEC can achieve competitive GEC quality compared to NMT-based baselines.


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The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Transformer Language Models in Grammatical Error Correction
Dimitris Alikaniotis | Vipul Raheja
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

Recent work on Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) has highlighted the importance of language modeling in that it is certainly possible to achieve good performance by comparing the probabilities of the proposed edits. At the same time, advancements in language modeling have managed to generate linguistic output, which is almost indistinguishable from that of human-generated text. In this paper, we up the ante by exploring the potential of more sophisticated language models in GEC and offer some key insights on their strengths and weaknesses. We show that, in line with recent results in other NLP tasks, Transformer architectures achieve consistently high performance and provide a competitive baseline for future machine learning models.