Dinesh Manocha


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PersonaLM: Language Model Personalization via Domain-distributed Span Aggregated K-Nearest N-gram Retrieval Augmentation
Puneet Mathur | Zhe Liu | Ke Li | Yingyi Ma | Gil Keren | Zeeshan Ahmed | Dinesh Manocha | Xuedong Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

We introduce PersonaLM - Domain-distributed Span-Aggregated K-nearest N-gram retrieval augmentation to improve language modeling for Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) personalization. PersonaLM leverages contextually similar n-gram word frequencies for recognizing rare word patterns associated with unseen domains. It aggregates the next-word probability distribution based on the relative importance of different domains to the input query. To achieve this, we propose a Span Aggregated Group-Contrastive Neural (SCAN) retriever that learns to rank external domains/users by utilizing a group-wise contrastive span loss that pulls together span representations belonging to the same group while pushing away spans from unrelated groups in the semantic space. We propose ASAP benchmark for ASR LM personalization that consists of three user-specific speech-to-text tasks for meetings, TED talks, and financial earnings calls. Extensive experiments show that PersonaLM significantly outperforms strong baselines with a 10-16% improvement in perplexity and a 5-8% reduction in Word Error Rates on popular Wikitext-103, UserLibri, and our ASAP dataset. We further demonstrate the usefulness of the SCAN retriever for improving user-personalized text generation and classification by retrieving relevant context for zero-shot prompting and few-shot fine-tuning of LLMs by 7-12% on the LAMP benchmark.

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CoSyn: Detecting Implicit Hate Speech in Online Conversations Using a Context Synergized Hyperbolic Network
Sreyan Ghosh | Manan Suri | Purva Chiniya | Utkarsh Tyagi | Sonal Kumar | Dinesh Manocha
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The tremendous growth of social media users interacting in online conversations has led to significant growth in hate speech affecting people from various demographics. Most of the prior works focus on detecting explicit hate speech, which is overt and leverages hateful phrases, with very little work focusing on detecting hate speech that is implicit or denotes hatred through indirect or coded language. In this paper, we present CoSyn, a context synergized neural network that explicitly incorporates user- and conversational-context for detecting implicit hate speech in online conversations. CoSyn introduces novel ways to encode these external contexts and employs a novel context interaction mechanism that clearly captures the interplay between them, making independent assessments of the amounts of information to be retrieved from these noisy contexts. Additionally, it carries out all these operations in the hyperbolic space to account for the scale-free dynamics of social media. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CoSyn on 6 hate speech datasets and show that CoSyn outperforms all our baselines in detecting implicit hate speech with absolute improvements in the range of 1.24% - 57.8%. We make our code available.

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DALE: Generative Data Augmentation for Low-Resource Legal NLP
Sreyan Ghosh | Chandra Kiran Reddy Evuru | Sonal Kumar | S Ramaneswaran | S Sakshi | Utkarsh Tyagi | Dinesh Manocha
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present DALE, a novel and effective generative Data Augmentation framework for low-resource LEgal NLP. DALE addresses the challenges existing frameworks pose in generating effective data augmentations of legal documents - legal language, with its specialized vocabulary and complex semantics, morphology, and syntax, does not benefit from data augmentations that merely rephrase the source sentence. To address this, DALE, built on an Encoder-Decoder Language Model, is pre-trained on a novel unsupervised text denoising objective based on selective masking - our masking strategy exploits the domain-specific language characteristics of templatized legal documents to mask collocated spans of text. Denoising these spans help DALE acquire broad legal knowledge and develop the ability to generate coherent and diverse augmentations with novel contexts. Finally, DALE performs conditional generation to generate synthetic augmentations for low-resource Legal NLP tasks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of DALE on 13 datasets spanning 6 tasks and 4 low-resource settings. DALE outperforms all our baselines, including LLMs, qualitatively and quantitatively, with absolute improvements of 1%-50%.

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APoLLo : Unified Adapter and Prompt Learning for Vision Language Models
Sanjoy Chowdhury | Sayan Nag | Dinesh Manocha
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The choice of input text prompt plays a critical role in the performance of Vision-Language Pretrained (VLP) models such as CLIP. We present APoLLo, a unified multi-modal approach that combines Adapter and Prompt learning for Vision-Language models. Our method is designed to substantially improve the generalization capabilities of VLP models when they are fine-tuned in a few-shot setting. We introduce trainable cross-attention-based adapter layers in conjunction with vision and language encoders to strengthen the alignment between the two modalities. We enforce consistency between the respective encoder branches (receiving augmented inputs) to prevent overfitting in downstream tasks. Our method is evaluated on three representative tasks: generalization to novel classes, cross-dataset evaluation, and unseen domain shifts. In practice, APoLLo achieves a relative gain up to 6.03% over MaPLe (SOTA) on novel classes for 10 diverse image recognition datasets.

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ACLM: A Selective-Denoising based Generative Data Augmentation Approach for Low-Resource Complex NER
Sreyan Ghosh | Utkarsh Tyagi | Manan Suri | Sonal Kumar | Ramaneswaran S | Dinesh Manocha
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Complex Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the task of detecting linguistically complex named entities in low-context text. In this paper, we present ACLM Attention-map aware keyword selection for Conditional Language Model fine-tuning), a novel data augmentation approach based on conditional generation, to address the data scarcity problem in low-resource complex NER. ACLM alleviates the context-entity mismatch issue, a problem existing NER data augmentation techniques suffer from and often generates incoherent augmentations by placing complex named entities in the wrong context. ACLM builds on BART and is optimized on a novel text reconstruction or denoising task - we use selective masking (aided by attention maps) to retain the named entities and certain keywords in the input sentence that provide contextually relevant additional knowledge or hints about the named entities. Compared with other data augmentation strategies, ACLM can generate more diverse and coherent augmentations preserving the true word sense of complex entities in the sentence. We demonstrate the effectiveness of ACLM both qualitatively and quantitatively on monolingual, cross-lingual, and multilingual complex NER across various low-resource settings. ACLM outperforms all our neural baselines by a significant margin (1%-36%). In addition, we demonstrate the application of ACLM to other domains that suffer from data scarcity (e.g., biomedical). In practice, ACLM generates more effective and factual augmentations for these domains than prior methods.


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DocFin: Multimodal Financial Prediction and Bias Mitigation using Semi-structured Documents
Puneet Mathur | Mihir Goyal | Ramit Sawhney | Ritik Mathur | Jochen Leidner | Franck Dernoncourt | Dinesh Manocha
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Financial prediction is complex due to the stochastic nature of the stock market. Semi-structured financial documents present comprehensive financial data in tabular formats, such as earnings, profit-loss statements, and balance sheets, and can often contain rich technical analysis along with a textual discussion of corporate history, and management analysis, compliance, and risks. Existing research focuses on the textual and audio modalities of financial disclosures from company conference calls to forecast stock volatility and price movement, but ignores the rich tabular data available in financial reports. Moreover, the economic realm is still plagued with a severe under-representation of various communities spanning diverse demographics, gender, and native speakers. In this work, we show that combining tabular data from financial semi-structured documents with text transcripts and audio recordings not only improves stock volatility and price movement prediction by 5-12% but also reduces gender bias caused due to audio-based neural networks by over 30%.

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DocTime: A Document-level Temporal Dependency Graph Parser
Puneet Mathur | Vlad Morariu | Verena Kaynig-Fittkau | Jiuxiang Gu | Franck Dernoncourt | Quan Tran | Ani Nenkova | Dinesh Manocha | Rajiv Jain
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We introduce DocTime - a novel temporal dependency graph (TDG) parser that takes as input a text document and produces a temporal dependency graph. It outperforms previous BERT-based solutions by a relative 4-8% on three datasets from modeling the problem as a graph network with path-prediction loss to incorporate longer range dependencies. This work also demonstrates how the TDG graph can be used to improve the downstream tasks of temporal questions answering and NLI by a relative 4-10% with a new framework that incorporates the temporal dependency graph into the self-attention layer of Transformer models (Time-transformer). Finally, we develop and evaluate on a new temporal dependency graph dataset for the domain of contractual documents, which has not been previously explored in this setting.

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DocInfer: Document-level Natural Language Inference using Optimal Evidence Selection
Puneet Mathur | Gautam Kunapuli | Riyaz Bhat | Manish Shrivastava | Dinesh Manocha | Maneesh Singh
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present DocInfer - a novel, end-to-end Document-level Natural Language Inference model that builds a hierarchical document graph enriched through inter-sentence relations (topical, entity-based, concept-based), performs paragraph pruning using the novel SubGraph Pooling layer, followed by optimal evidence selection based on REINFORCE algorithm to identify the most important context sentences for a given hypothesis. Our evidence selection mechanism allows it to transcend the input length limitation of modern BERT-like Transformer models while presenting the entire evidence together for inferential reasoning. We show this is an important property needed to reason on large documents where the evidence may be fragmented and located arbitrarily far from each other. Extensive experiments on popular corpora - DocNLI, ContractNLI, and ConTRoL datasets, and our new proposed dataset called CaseHoldNLI on the task of legal judicial reasoning, demonstrate significant performance gains of 8-12% over SOTA methods. Our ablation studies validate the impact of our model. Performance improvement of 3-6% on annotation-scarce downstream tasks of fact verification, multiple-choice QA, and contract clause retrieval demonstrates the usefulness of DocInfer beyond primary NLI tasks.


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TIMERS: Document-level Temporal Relation Extraction
Puneet Mathur | Rajiv Jain | Franck Dernoncourt | Vlad Morariu | Quan Hung Tran | Dinesh Manocha
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

We present TIMERS - a TIME, Rhetorical and Syntactic-aware model for document-level temporal relation classification in the English language. Our proposed method leverages rhetorical discourse features and temporal arguments from semantic role labels, in addition to traditional local syntactic features, trained through a Gated Relational-GCN. Extensive experiments show that the proposed model outperforms previous methods by 5-18% on the TDDiscourse, TimeBank-Dense, and MATRES datasets due to our discourse-level modeling.