Diptesh Kanojia


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Modelling Political Aggression on Social Media Platforms
Akash Rawat | Nazia Nafis | Dnyaneshwar Bhadane | Diptesh Kanojia | Rudra Murthy
Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment, & Social Media Analysis

Recent years have seen a proliferation of aggressive social media posts, often wreaking even real-world consequences for victims. Aggressive behaviour on social media is especially evident during important sociopolitical events such as elections, communal incidents, and public protests. In this paper, we introduce a dataset in English to model political aggression. The dataset comprises public tweets collated across the time-frames of two of the most recent Indian general elections. We manually annotate this data for the task of aggression detection and analyze this data for aggressive behaviour. To benchmark the efficacy of our dataset, we perform experiments by fine-tuning pre-trained language models and comparing the results with models trained on an existing but general domain dataset. Our models consistently outperform the models trained on existing data. Our best model achieves a macro F1-score of 66.66 on our dataset. We also train models on a combined version of both datasets, achieving best macro F1-score of 92.77, on our dataset. Additionally, we create subsets of code-mixed and non-code-mixed data from the combined dataset to observe variations in results due to the Hindi-English code-mixing phenomenon. We publicly release the anonymized data, code, and models for further research.

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YANMTT: Yet Another Neural Machine Translation Toolkit
Raj Dabre | Diptesh Kanojia | Chinmay Sawant | Eiichiro Sumita
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

In this paper, we present our open-source neural machine translation (NMT) toolkit called “Yet Another Neural Machine Translation Toolkit” abbreviated as YANMTT - https://github.com/prajdabre/yanmtt, which is built on top of the HuggingFace Transformers library. YANMTT focuses on transfer learning and enables easy pre-training and fine-tuning of sequence-to-sequence models at scale. It can be used for training parameter-heavy models with minimal parameter sharing and efficient, lightweight models via heavy parameter sharing. Additionally, it supports parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) through adapters and prompts. Our toolkit also comes with a user interface that can be used to demonstrate these models and visualize various parts of the model. Apart from these core features, our toolkit also provides other advanced functionalities such as but not limited to document/multi-source NMT, simultaneous NMT, mixtures-of-experts, model compression and continual learning.

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A Multi-task Learning Framework for Quality Estimation
Sourabh Deoghare | Paramveer Choudhary | Diptesh Kanojia | Tharindu Ranasinghe | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Constantin Orăsan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Quality Estimation (QE) is the task of evaluating machine translation output in the absence of reference translation. Conventional approaches to QE involve training separate models at different levels of granularity viz., word-level, sentence-level, and document-level, which sometimes lead to inconsistent predictions for the same input. To overcome this limitation, we focus on jointly training a single model for sentence-level and word-level QE tasks in a multi-task learning framework. Using two multi-task learning-based QE approaches, we show that multi-task learning improves the performance of both tasks. We evaluate these approaches by performing experiments in different settings, viz., single-pair, multi-pair, and zero-shot. We compare the multi-task learning-based approach with baseline QE models trained on single tasks and observe an improvement of up to 4.28% in Pearson’s correlation (r) at sentence-level and 8.46% in F1-score at word-level, in the single-pair setting. In the multi-pair setting, we observe improvements of up to 3.04% at sentence-level and 13.74% at word-level; while in the zero-shot setting, we also observe improvements of up to 5.26% and 3.05%, respectively. We make the models proposed in this paper publically available.

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Towards Safer Communities: Detecting Aggression and Offensive Language in Code-Mixed Tweets to Combat Cyberbullying
Nazia Nafis | Diptesh Kanojia | Naveen Saini | Rudra Murthy
The 7th Workshop on Online Abuse and Harms (WOAH)

Cyberbullying is a serious societal issue widespread on various channels and platforms, particularly social networking sites. Such platforms have proven to be exceptionally fertile grounds for such behavior. The dearth of high-quality training data for multilingual and low-resource scenarios, data that can accurately capture the nuances of social media conversations, often poses a roadblock to this task. This paper attempts to tackle cyberbullying, specifically its two most common manifestations - aggression and offensiveness. We present a novel, manually annotated dataset of a total of 10,000 English and Hindi-English code-mixed tweets, manually annotated for aggression detection and offensive language detection tasks. Our annotations are supported by inter-annotator agreement scores of 0.67 and 0.74 for the two tasks, indicating substantial agreement. We perform comprehensive fine-tuning of pre-trained language models (PTLMs) using this dataset to check its efficacy. Our challenging test sets show that the best models achieve macro F1-scores of 67.87 and 65.45 on the two tasks, respectively. Further, we perform cross-dataset transfer learning to benchmark our dataset against existing aggression and offensive language datasets. We also present a detailed quantitative and qualitative analysis of errors in prediction, and with this paper, we publicly release the novel dataset, code, and models.

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Evaluation of Chinese-English Machine Translation of Emotion-Loaded Microblog Texts: A Human Annotated Dataset for the Quality Assessment of Emotion Translation
Shenbin Qian | Constantin Orasan | Felix Do Carmo | Qiuliang Li | Diptesh Kanojia
Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the European Association for Machine Translation

In this paper, we focus on how current Machine Translation (MT) engines perform on the translation of emotion-loaded texts by evaluating outputs from Google Translate according to a framework proposed in this paper. We propose this evaluation framework based on the Multidimensional Quality Metrics (MQM) and perform detailed error analyses of the MT outputs. From our analysis, we observe that about 50% of MT outputs are erroneous in preserving emotions. After further analysis of the erroneous examples, we find that emotion carrying words and linguistic phenomena such as polysemous words, negation, abbreviation etc., are common causes for these translation errors.


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Utilizing Weak Supervision to Create S3D: A Sarcasm Annotated Dataset
Jordan Painter | Helen Treharne | Diptesh Kanojia
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Natural Language Processing and Computational Social Science (NLP+CSS)

Sarcasm is prevalent in all corners of social media, posing many challenges within Natural Language Processing (NLP), particularly for sentiment analysis. Sarcasm detection remains a largely unsolved problem in many NLP tasks due to its contradictory and typically derogatory nature as a figurative language construct. With recent strides in NLP, many pre-trained language models exist that have been trained on data from specific social media platforms, i.e., Twitter. In this paper, we evaluate the efficacy of multiple sarcasm detection datasets using machine and deep learning models. We create two new datasets - a manually annotated gold standard Sarcasm Annotated Dataset (SAD) and a Silver-Standard Sarcasm-annotated Dataset (S3D). Using a combination of existing sarcasm datasets with SAD, we train a sarcasm detection model over a social-media domain pre-trained language model, BERTweet, which yields an F1-score of 78.29%. Using an Ensemble model with an underlying majority technique, we further label S3D to produce a weakly supervised dataset containing over 100,000 tweets. We publicly release all the code, our manually annotated and weakly supervised datasets, and fine-tuned models for further research.

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Harnessing Abstractive Summarization for Fact-Checked Claim Detection
Varad Bhatnagar | Diptesh Kanojia | Kameswari Chebrolu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Social media platforms have become new battlegrounds for anti-social elements, with misinformation being the weapon of choice. Fact-checking organizations try to debunk as many claims as possible while staying true to their journalistic processes but cannot cope with its rapid dissemination. We believe that the solution lies in partial automation of the fact-checking life cycle, saving human time for tasks which require high cognition. We propose a new workflow for efficiently detecting previously fact-checked claims that uses abstractive summarization to generate crisp queries. These queries can then be executed on a general-purpose retrieval system associated with a collection of previously fact-checked claims. We curate an abstractive text summarization dataset comprising noisy claims from Twitter and their gold summaries. It is shown that retrieval performance improves 2x by using popular out-of-the-box summarization models and 3x by fine-tuning them on the accompanying dataset compared to verbatim querying. Our approach achieves Recall@5 and MRR of 35% and 0.3, compared to baseline values of 10% and 0.1, respectively. Our dataset, code, and models are available publicly: https://github.com/varadhbhatnagar/FC-Claim-Det/.

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Findings of the WMT 2022 Shared Task on Quality Estimation
Chrysoula Zerva | Frédéric Blain | Ricardo Rei | Piyawat Lertvittayakumjorn | José G. C. de Souza | Steffen Eger | Diptesh Kanojia | Duarte Alves | Constantin Orăsan | Marina Fomicheva | André F. T. Martins | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

We report the results of the WMT 2022 shared task on Quality Estimation, in which the challenge is to predict the quality of the output of neural machine translation systems at the word and sentence levels, without access to reference translations. This edition introduces a few novel aspects and extensions that aim to enable more fine-grained, and explainable quality estimation approaches. We introduce an updated quality annotation scheme using Multidimensional Quality Metrics to obtain sentence- and word-level quality scores for three language pairs. We also extend the Direct Assessments and post-edit data (MLQE-PE) to new language pairs: we present a novel and large dataset on English-Marathi, as well as a zero-shot test set on English-Yoruba. Further, we include an explainability sub-task for all language pairs and present a new format of a critical error detection task for two new language pairs. Participants from 11 different teams submitted altogether 991 systems to different task variants and language pairs.

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Findings of the WMT 2022 Shared Task on Automatic Post-Editing
Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Rajen Chatterjee | Markus Freitag | Diptesh Kanojia | Matteo Negri | Marco Turchi
Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Machine Translation (WMT)

We present the results from the 8th round of the WMT shared task on MT Automatic PostEditing, which consists in automatically correcting the output of a “black-box” machine translation system by learning from human corrections. This year, the task focused on a new language pair (English→Marathi) and on data coming from multiple domains (healthcare, tourism, and general/news). Although according to several indicators this round was of medium-high difficulty compared to the past,the best submission from the three participating teams managed to significantly improve (with an error reduction of 3.49 TER points) the original translations produced by a generic neural MT system.

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PLOD: An Abbreviation Detection Dataset for Scientific Documents
Leonardo Zilio | Hadeel Saadany | Prashant Sharma | Diptesh Kanojia | Constantin Orăsan
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

The detection and extraction of abbreviations from unstructured texts can help to improve the performance of Natural Language Processing tasks, such as machine translation and information retrieval. However, in terms of publicly available datasets, there is not enough data for training deep-neural-networks-based models to the point of generalising well over data. This paper presents PLOD, a large-scale dataset for abbreviation detection and extraction that contains 160k+ segments automatically annotated with abbreviations and their long forms. We performed manual validation over a set of instances and a complete automatic validation for this dataset. We then used it to generate several baseline models for detecting abbreviations and long forms. The best models achieved an F1-score of 0.92 for abbreviations and 0.89 for detecting their corresponding long forms. We release this dataset along with our code and all the models publicly at https://github.com/surrey-nlp/PLOD-AbbreviationDetection

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HiNER: A large Hindi Named Entity Recognition Dataset
Rudra Murthy | Pallab Bhattacharjee | Rahul Sharnagat | Jyotsana Khatri | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Named Entity Recognition (NER) is a foundational NLP task that aims to provide class labels like Person, Location, Organisation, Time, and Number to words in free text. Named Entities can also be multi-word expressions where the additional I-O-B annotation information helps label them during the NER annotation process. While English and European languages have considerable annotated data for the NER task, Indian languages lack on that front- both in terms of quantity and following annotation standards. This paper releases a significantly sized standard-abiding Hindi NER dataset containing 109,146 sentences and 2,220,856 tokens, annotated with 11 tags. We discuss the dataset statistics in all their essential detail and provide an in-depth analysis of the NER tag-set used with our data. The statistics of tag-set in our dataset shows a healthy per-tag distribution especially for prominent classes like Person, Location and Organisation. Since the proof of resource-effectiveness is in building models with the resource and testing the model on benchmark data and against the leader-board entries in shared tasks, we do the same with the aforesaid data. We use different language models to perform the sequence labelling task for NER and show the efficacy of our data by performing a comparative evaluation with models trained on another dataset available for the Hindi NER task. Our dataset helps achieve a weighted F1 score of 88.78 with all the tags and 92.22 when we collapse the tag-set, as discussed in the paper. To the best of our knowledge, no available dataset meets the standards of volume (amount) and variability (diversity), as far as Hindi NER is concerned. We fill this gap through this work, which we hope will significantly help NLP for Hindi. We release this dataset with our code and models for further research at https://github.com/cfiltnlp/HiNER

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SURREY-CTS-NLP at WASSA2022: An Experiment of Discourse and Sentiment Analysis for the Prediction of Empathy, Distress and Emotion
Shenbin Qian | Constantin Orasan | Diptesh Kanojia | Hadeel Saadany | Félix Do Carmo
Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment & Social Media Analysis

This paper summarises the submissions our team, SURREY-CTS-NLP has made for the WASSA 2022 Shared Task for the prediction of empathy, distress and emotion. In this work, we tested different learning strategies, like ensemble learning and multi-task learning, as well as several large language models, but our primary focus was on analysing and extracting emotion-intensive features from both the essays in the training data and the news articles, to better predict empathy and distress scores from the perspective of discourse and sentiment analysis. We propose several text feature extraction schemes to compensate the small size of training examples for fine-tuning pretrained language models, including methods based on Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) parsing, cosine similarity and sentiment score. Our best submissions achieve an average Pearson correlation score of 0.518 for the empathy prediction task and an F1 score of 0.571 for the emotion prediction task, indicating that using these schemes to extract emotion-intensive information can help improve model performance.


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Pushing the Right Buttons: Adversarial Evaluation of Quality Estimation
Diptesh Kanojia | Marina Fomicheva | Tharindu Ranasinghe | Frédéric Blain | Constantin Orăsan | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

Current Machine Translation (MT) systems achieve very good results on a growing variety of language pairs and datasets. However, they are known to produce fluent translation outputs that can contain important meaning errors, thus undermining their reliability in practice. Quality Estimation (QE) is the task of automatically assessing the performance of MT systems at test time. Thus, in order to be useful, QE systems should be able to detect such errors. However, this ability is yet to be tested in the current evaluation practices, where QE systems are assessed only in terms of their correlation with human judgements. In this work, we bridge this gap by proposing a general methodology for adversarial testing of QE for MT. First, we show that despite a high correlation with human judgements achieved by the recent SOTA, certain types of meaning errors are still problematic for QE to detect. Second, we show that on average, the ability of a given model to discriminate between meaning-preserving and meaning-altering perturbations is predictive of its overall performance, thus potentially allowing for comparing QE systems without relying on manual quality annotation.

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Cognition-aware Cognate Detection
Diptesh Kanojia | Prashant Sharma | Sayali Ghodekar | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Gholamreza Haffari | Malhar Kulkarni
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Automatic detection of cognates helps downstream NLP tasks of Machine Translation, Cross-lingual Information Retrieval, Computational Phylogenetics and Cross-lingual Named Entity Recognition. Previous approaches for the task of cognate detection use orthographic, phonetic and semantic similarity based features sets. In this paper, we propose a novel method for enriching the feature sets, with cognitive features extracted from human readers’ gaze behaviour. We collect gaze behaviour data for a small sample of cognates and show that extracted cognitive features help the task of cognate detection. However, gaze data collection and annotation is a costly task. We use the collected gaze behaviour data to predict cognitive features for a larger sample and show that predicted cognitive features, also, significantly improve the task performance. We report improvements of 10% with the collected gaze features, and 12% using the predicted gaze features, over the previously proposed approaches. Furthermore, we release the collected gaze behaviour data along with our code and cross-lingual models.

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FrameNet-assisted Noun Compound Interpretation
Girishkumar Ponkiya | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Girish Palshikar
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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“So You Think You’re Funny?”: Rating the Humour Quotient in Standup Comedy
Anirudh Mittal | Pranav Jeevan P | Prerak Gandhi | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Computational Humour (CH) has attracted the interest of Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics communities. Creating datasets for automatic measurement of humour quotient is difficult due to multiple possible interpretations of the content. In this work, we create a multi-modal humour-annotated dataset (~40 hours) using stand-up comedy clips. We devise a novel scoring mechanism to annotate the training data with a humour quotient score using the audience’s laughter. The normalized duration (laughter duration divided by the clip duration) of laughter in each clip is used to compute this humour coefficient score on a five-point scale (0-4). This method of scoring is validated by comparing with manually annotated scores, wherein a quadratic weighted kappa of 0.6 is obtained. We use this dataset to train a model that provides a ‘funniness’ score, on a five-point scale, given the audio and its corresponding text. We compare various neural language models for the task of humour-rating and achieve an accuracy of 0.813 in terms of Quadratic Weighted Kappa (QWK). Our ‘Open Mic’ dataset is released for further research along with the code.

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Automated Evidence Collection for Fake News Detection
Mrinal Rawat | Diptesh Kanojia
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON)

Fake news, misinformation, and unverifiable facts on social media platforms propagate disharmony and affect society, especially when dealing with an epidemic like COVID-19. The task of Fake News Detection aims to tackle the effects of such misinformation by classifying news items as fake or real. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that improves over the current automatic fake news detection approaches by automatically gathering evidence for each claim. Our approach extracts supporting evidence from the web articles and then selects appropriate text to be treated as evidence sets. We use a pre-trained summarizer on these evidence sets and then use the extracted summary as supporting evidence to aid the classification task. Our experiments, using both machine learning and deep learning-based methods, help perform an extensive evaluation of our approach. The results show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in fake news detection to achieve an F1-score of 99.25 over the dataset provided for the CONSTRAINT-2021 Shared Task. We also release the augmented dataset, our code and models for any further research.


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Happy Are Those Who Grade without Seeing: A Multi-Task Learning Approach to Grade Essays Using Gaze Behaviour
Sandeep Mathias | Rudra Murthy | Diptesh Kanojia | Abhijit Mishra | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

The gaze behaviour of a reader is helpful in solving several NLP tasks such as automatic essay grading. However, collecting gaze behaviour from readers is costly in terms of time and money. In this paper, we propose a way to improve automatic essay grading using gaze behaviour, which is learnt at run time using a multi-task learning framework. To demonstrate the efficacy of this multi-task learning based approach to automatic essay grading, we collect gaze behaviour for 48 essays across 4 essay sets, and learn gaze behaviour for the rest of the essays, numbering over 7000 essays. Using the learnt gaze behaviour, we can achieve a statistically significant improvement in performance over the state-of-the-art system for the essay sets where we have gaze data. We also achieve a statistically significant improvement for 4 other essay sets, numbering about 6000 essays, where we have no gaze behaviour data available. Our approach establishes that learning gaze behaviour improves automatic essay grading.

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Harnessing Cross-lingual Features to Improve Cognate Detection for Low-resource Languages
Diptesh Kanojia | Raj Dabre | Shubham Dewangan | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Gholamreza Haffari | Malhar Kulkarni
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Cognates are variants of the same lexical form across different languages; for example “fonema” in Spanish and “phoneme” in English are cognates, both of which mean “a unit of sound”. The task of automatic detection of cognates among any two languages can help downstream NLP tasks such as Cross-lingual Information Retrieval, Computational Phylogenetics, and Machine Translation. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of cross-lingual word embeddings for detecting cognates among fourteen Indian Languages. Our approach introduces the use of context from a knowledge graph to generate improved feature representations for cognate detection. We, then, evaluate the impact of our cognate detection mechanism on neural machine translation (NMT), as a downstream task. We evaluate our methods to detect cognates on a challenging dataset of twelve Indian languages, namely, Sanskrit, Hindi, Assamese, Oriya, Kannada, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu, Punjabi, Bengali, Marathi, and Malayalam. Additionally, we create evaluation datasets for two more Indian languages, Konkani and Nepali. We observe an improvement of up to 18% points, in terms of F-score, for cognate detection. Furthermore, we observe that cognates extracted using our method help improve NMT quality by up to 2.76 BLEU. We also release our code, newly constructed datasets and cross-lingual models publicly.

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“A Passage to India”: Pre-trained Word Embeddings for Indian Languages
Saurav Kumar | Saunack Kumar | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 1st Joint Workshop on Spoken Language Technologies for Under-resourced languages (SLTU) and Collaboration and Computing for Under-Resourced Languages (CCURL)

Dense word vectors or ‘word embeddings’ which encode semantic properties of words, have now become integral to NLP tasks like Machine Translation (MT), Question Answering (QA), Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD), and Information Retrieval (IR). In this paper, we use various existing approaches to create multiple word embeddings for 14 Indian languages. We place these embeddings for all these languages, viz., Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Konkani, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Odiya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Tamil, and Telugu in a single repository. Relatively newer approaches that emphasize catering to context (BERT, ELMo, etc.) have shown significant improvements, but require a large amount of resources to generate usable models. We release pre-trained embeddings generated using both contextual and non-contextual approaches. We also use MUSE and XLM to train cross-lingual embeddings for all pairs of the aforementioned languages. To show the efficacy of our embeddings, we evaluate our embedding models on XPOS, UPOS and NER tasks for all these languages. We release a total of 436 models using 8 different approaches. We hope they are useful for the resource-constrained Indian language NLP. The title of this paper refers to the famous novel “A Passage to India” by E.M. Forster, published initially in 1924.

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Challenge Dataset of Cognates and False Friend Pairs from Indian Languages
Diptesh Kanojia | Malhar Kulkarni | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Gholamreza Haffari
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Cognates are present in multiple variants of the same text across different languages (e.g., “hund” in German and “hound” in the English language mean “dog”). They pose a challenge to various Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as Machine Translation, Cross-lingual Sense Disambiguation, Computational Phylogenetics, and Information Retrieval. A possible solution to address this challenge is to identify cognates across language pairs. In this paper, we describe the creation of two cognate datasets for twelve Indian languages namely Sanskrit, Hindi, Assamese, Oriya, Kannada, Gujarati, Tamil, Telugu, Punjabi, Bengali, Marathi, and Malayalam. We digitize the cognate data from an Indian language cognate dictionary and utilize linked Indian language Wordnets to generate cognate sets. Additionally, we use the Wordnet data to create a False Friends’ dataset for eleven language pairs. We also evaluate the efficacy of our dataset using previously available baseline cognate detection approaches. We also perform a manual evaluation with the help of lexicographers and release the curated gold-standard dataset with this paper.

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Recommendation Chart of Domains for Cross-Domain Sentiment Analysis: Findings of A 20 Domain Study
Akash Sheoran | Diptesh Kanojia | Aditya Joshi | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Cross-domain sentiment analysis (CDSA) helps to address the problem of data scarcity in scenarios where labelled data for a domain (known as the target domain) is unavailable or insufficient. However, the decision to choose a domain (known as the source domain) to leverage from is, at best, intuitive. In this paper, we investigate text similarity metrics to facilitate source domain selection for CDSA. We report results on 20 domains (all possible pairs) using 11 similarity metrics. Specifically, we compare CDSA performance with these metrics for different domain-pairs to enable the selection of a suitable source domain, given a target domain. These metrics include two novel metrics for evaluating domain adaptability to help source domain selection of labelled data and utilize word and sentence-based embeddings as metrics for unlabelled data. The goal of our experiments is a recommendation chart that gives the K best source domains for CDSA for a given target domain. We show that the best K source domains returned by our similarity metrics have a precision of over 50%, for varying values of K.

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Cognitively Aided Zero-Shot Automatic Essay Grading
Sandeep Mathias | Rudra Murthy | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON)

Automatic essay grading (AEG) is a process in which machines assign a grade to an essay written in response to a topic, called the prompt. Zero-shot AEG is when we train a system to grade essays written to a new prompt which was not present in our training data. In this paper, we describe a solution to the problem of zero-shot automatic essay grading, using cognitive information, in the form of gaze behaviour. Our experiments show that using gaze behaviour helps in improving the performance of AEG systems, especially when we provide a new essay written in response to a new prompt for scoring, by an average of almost 5 percentage points of QWK.


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Utilizing Word Embeddings based Features for Phylogenetic Tree Generation of Sanskrit Texts
Diptesh Kanojia | Abhijeet Dubey | Malhar Kulkarni | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Gholemreza Haffari
Proceedings of the 6th International Sanskrit Computational Linguistics Symposium

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An Introduction to the Textual History Tool
Diptesh Kanojia | Malhar Kulkarni | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Eivind Kahrs
Proceedings of the 6th International Sanskrit Computational Linguistics Symposium

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Utilizing Wordnets for Cognate Detection among Indian Languages
Diptesh Kanojia | Kevin Patel | Malhar Kulkarni | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Gholemreza Haffari
Proceedings of the 10th Global Wordnet Conference

Automatic Cognate Detection (ACD) is a challenging task which has been utilized to help NLP applications like Machine Translation, Information Retrieval and Computational Phylogenetics. Unidentified cognate pairs can pose a challenge to these applications and result in a degradation of performance. In this paper, we detect cognate word pairs among ten Indian languages with Hindi and use deep learning methodologies to predict whether a word pair is cognate or not. We identify IndoWordnet as a potential resource to detect cognate word pairs based on orthographic similarity-based methods and train neural network models using the data obtained from it. We identify parallel corpora as another potential resource and perform the same experiments for them. We also validate the contribution of Wordnets through further experimentation and report improved performance of up to 26%. We discuss the nuances of cognate detection among closely related Indian languages and release the lists of detected cognates as a dataset. We also observe the behaviour of, to an extent, unrelated Indian language pairs and release the lists of detected cognates among them as well.


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Semi-automatic WordNet Linking using Word Embeddings
Kevin Patel | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 9th Global Wordnet Conference

Wordnets are rich lexico-semantic resources. Linked wordnets are extensions of wordnets, which link similar concepts in wordnets of different languages. Such resources are extremely useful in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications, primarily those based on knowledge-based approaches. In such approaches, these resources are considered as gold standard/oracle. Thus, it is crucial that these resources hold correct information. Thereby, they are created by human experts. However, manual maintenance of such resources is a tedious and costly affair. Thus techniques that can aid the experts are desirable. In this paper, we propose an approach to link wordnets. Given a synset of the source language, the approach returns a ranked list of potential candidate synsets in the target language from which the human expert can choose the correct one(s). Our technique is able to retrieve a winner synset in the top 10 ranked list for 60% of all synsets and 70% of noun synsets.

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Hindi Wordnet for Language Teaching: Experiences and Lessons Learnt
Hanumant Redkar | Rajita Shukla | Sandhya Singh | Jaya Saraswati | Laxmi Kashyap | Diptesh Kanojia | Preethi Jyothi | Malhar Kulkarni | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 9th Global Wordnet Conference

This paper reports the work related to making Hindi Wordnet1 available as a digital resource for language learning and teaching, and the experiences and lessons that were learnt during the process. The language data of the Hindi Wordnet has been suitably modified and enhanced to make it into a language learning aid. This aid is based on modern pedagogical axioms and is aligned to the learning objectives of the syllabi of the school education in India. To make it into a comprehensive language tool, grammatical information has also been encoded, as far as these can be marked on the lexical items. The delivery of information is multi-layered, multi-sensory and is available across multiple digital platforms. The front end has been designed to offer an eye-catching user-friendly interface which is suitable for learners starting from age six onward. Preliminary testing of the tool has been done and it has been modified as per the feedbacks that were received. Above all, the entire exercise has offered gainful insights into learning based on associative networks and how knowledge based on such networks can be made available to modern learners.

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pyiwn: A Python based API to access Indian Language WordNets
Ritesh Panjwani | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 9th Global Wordnet Conference

Indian language WordNets have their individual web-based browsing interfaces along with a common interface for IndoWordNet. These interfaces prove to be useful for language learners and in an educational domain, however, they do not provide the functionality of connecting to them and browsing their data through a lucid application programming interface or an API. In this paper, we present our work on creating such an easy-to-use framework which is bundled with the data for Indian language WordNets and provides NLTK WordNet interface like core functionalities in Python. Additionally, we use a pre-built speech synthesis system for Hindi language and augment Hindi data with audios for words, glosses, and example sentences. We provide a detailed usage of our API and explain the functions for ease of the user. Also, we package the IndoWordNet data along with the source code and provide it openly for the purpose of research. We aim to provide all our work as an open source framework for further development.

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Synthesizing Audio for Hindi WordNet
Diptesh Kanojia | Preethi Jyothi | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 9th Global Wordnet Conference

In this paper, we describe our work on the creation of a voice model using a speech synthesis system for the Hindi Language. We use pre-existing “voices”, use publicly available speech corpora to create a “voice” using the Festival Speech Synthesis System (Black, 1997). Our contribution is two-fold: (1) We scrutinize multiple speech synthesis systems and provide an extensive report on the currently available state-of-the-art systems. We also develop voices using the existing implementations of the aforementioned systems, and (2) We use these voices to generate sample audios for randomly chosen words; manually evaluate the audio generated, and produce audio for all WordNet words using the winner voice model. We also produce audios for the Hindi WordNet Glosses and Example sentences. We describe our efforts to use pre-existing implementations for WaveNet - a model to generate raw audio using neural nets (Oord et al., 2016) and generate speech for Hindi. Our lexicographers perform a manual evaluation of the audio generated using multiple voices. A qualitative and quantitative analysis reveals that the voice model generated by us performs the best with an accuracy of 0.44.

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Eyes are the Windows to the Soul: Predicting the Rating of Text Quality Using Gaze Behaviour
Sandeep Mathias | Diptesh Kanojia | Kevin Patel | Samarth Agrawal | Abhijit Mishra | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Predicting a reader’s rating of text quality is a challenging task that involves estimating different subjective aspects of the text, like structure, clarity, etc. Such subjective aspects are better handled using cognitive information. One such source of cognitive information is gaze behaviour. In this paper, we show that gaze behaviour does indeed help in effectively predicting the rating of text quality. To do this, we first we model text quality as a function of three properties - organization, coherence and cohesion. Then, we demonstrate how capturing gaze behaviour helps in predicting each of these properties, and hence the overall quality, by reporting improvements obtained by adding gaze features to traditional textual features for score prediction. We also hypothesize that if a reader has fully understood the text, the corresponding gaze behaviour would give a better indication of the assigned rating, as opposed to partial understanding. Our experiments validate this hypothesis by showing greater agreement between the given rating and the predicted rating when the reader has a full understanding of the text.

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Indian Language Wordnets and their Linkages with Princeton WordNet
Diptesh Kanojia | Kevin Patel | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


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Is your Statement Purposeless? Predicting Computer Science Graduation Admission Acceptance based on Statement Of Purpose
Diptesh Kanojia | Nikhil Wani | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Natural Language Processing (ICON-2017)


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That’ll Do Fine!: A Coarse Lexical Resource for English-Hindi MT, Using Polylingual Topic Models
Diptesh Kanojia | Aditya Joshi | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Mark James Carman
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

Parallel corpora are often injected with bilingual lexical resources for improved Indian language machine translation (MT). In absence of such lexical resources, multilingual topic models have been used to create coarse lexical resources in the past, using a Cartesian product approach. Our results show that for morphologically rich languages like Hindi, the Cartesian product approach is detrimental for MT. We then present a novel ‘sentential’ approach to use this coarse lexical resource from a multilingual topic model. Our coarse lexical resource when injected with a parallel corpus outperforms a system trained using parallel corpus and a good quality lexical resource. As demonstrated by the quality of our coarse lexical resource and its benefit to MT, we believe that our sentential approach to create such a resource will help MT for resource-constrained languages.

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SlangNet: A WordNet like resource for English Slang
Shehzaad Dhuliawala | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

We present a WordNet like structured resource for slang words and neologisms on the internet. The dynamism of language is often an indication that current language technology tools trained on today’s data, may not be able to process the language in the future. Our resource could be (1) used to augment the WordNet, (2) used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications which make use of noisy data on the internet like Information Retrieval and Web Mining. Such a resource can also be used to distinguish slang word senses from conventional word senses. To stimulate similar innovations widely in the NLP community, we test the efficacy of our resource for detecting slang using standard bag of words Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) algorithms (Lesk and Extended Lesk) for English data on the internet.

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Sophisticated Lexical Databases - Simplified Usage: Mobile Applications and Browser Plugins For Wordnets
Diptesh Kanojia | Raj Dabre | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 8th Global WordNet Conference (GWC)

India is a country with 22 officially recognized languages and 17 of these have WordNets, a crucial resource. Web browser based interfaces are available for these WordNets, but are not suited for mobile devices which deters people from effectively using this resource. We present our initial work on developing mobile applications and browser extensions to access WordNets for Indian Languages. Our contribution is two fold: (1) We develop mobile applications for the Android, iOS and Windows Phone OS platforms for Hindi, Marathi and Sanskrit WordNets which allow users to search for words and obtain more information along with their translations in English and other Indian languages. (2) We also develop browser extensions for English, Hindi, Marathi, and Sanskrit WordNets, for both Mozilla Firefox, and Google Chrome. We believe that such applications can be quite helpful in a classroom scenario, where students would be able to access the WordNets as dictionaries as well as lexical knowledge bases. This can help in overcoming the language barrier along with furthering language understanding.

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A picture is worth a thousand words: Using OpenClipArt library for enriching IndoWordNet
Diptesh Kanojia | Shehzaad Dhuliawala | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 8th Global WordNet Conference (GWC)

WordNet has proved to be immensely useful for Word Sense Disambiguation, and thence Machine translation, Information Retrieval and Question Answering. It can also be used as a dictionary for educational purposes. The semantic nature of concepts in a WordNet motivates one to try to express this meaning in a more visual way. In this paper, we describe our work of enriching IndoWordNet with image acquisitions from the OpenClipArt library. We describe an approach used to enrich WordNets for eighteen Indian languages. Our contribution is three fold: (1) We develop a system, which, given a synset in English, finds an appropriate image for the synset. The system uses the OpenclipArt library (OCAL) to retrieve images and ranks them. (2) After retrieving the images, we map the results along with the linkages between Princeton WordNet and Hindi WordNet, to link several synsets to corresponding images. We choose and sort top three images based on our ranking heuristic per synset. (3) We develop a tool that allows a lexicographer to manually evaluate these images. The top images are shown to a lexicographer by the evaluation tool for the task of choosing the best image representation. The lexicographer also selects the number of relevant images. Using our system, we obtain an Average Precision (P @ 3) score of 0.30.

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Mapping it differently: A solution to the linking challenges
Meghna Singh | Rajita Shukla | Jaya Saraswati | Laxmi Kashyap | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 8th Global WordNet Conference (GWC)

This paper reports the work of creating bilingual mappings in English for certain synsets of Hindi wordnet, the need for doing this, the methods adopted and the tools created for the task. Hindi wordnet, which forms the foundation for other Indian language wordnets, has been linked to the English WordNet. To maximize linkages, an important strategy of using direct and hypernymy linkages has been followed. However, the hypernymy linkages were found to be inadequate in certain cases and posed a challenge due to sense granularity of language. Thus, the idea of creating bilingual mappings was adopted as a solution. A bilingual mapping means a linkage between a concept in two different languages, with the help of translation and/or transliteration. Such mappings retain meaningful representations, while capturing semantic similarity at the same time. This has also proven to be a great enhancement of Hindi wordnet and can be a crucial resource for multilingual applications in natural language processing, including machine translation and cross language information retrieval.

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Harnessing Cognitive Features for Sarcasm Detection
Abhijit Mishra | Diptesh Kanojia | Seema Nagar | Kuntal Dey | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Leveraging Cognitive Features for Sentiment Analysis
Abhijit Mishra | Diptesh Kanojia | Seema Nagar | Kuntal Dey | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 20th SIGNLL Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning


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TransChat: Cross-Lingual Instant Messaging for Indian Languages
Diptesh Kanojia | Shehzaad Dhuliawala | Abhijit Mishra | Naman Gupta | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Natural Language Processing

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Using Multilingual Topic Models for Improved Alignment in English-Hindi MT
Diptesh Kanojia | Aditya Joshi | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Mark James Carman
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Natural Language Processing


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Do not do processing, when you can look up: Towards a Discrimination Net for WSD
Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya | Raj Dabre | Siddhartha Gunti | Manish Shrivastava
Proceedings of the Seventh Global Wordnet Conference

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PaCMan : Parallel Corpus Management Workbench
Diptesh Kanojia | Manish Shrivastava | Raj Dabre | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Natural Language Processing


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More than meets the eye: Study of Human Cognition in Sense Annotation
Salil Joshi | Diptesh Kanojia | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies


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Discrimination-Net for Hindi
Diptesh Kanojia | Arindam Chatterjee | Salil Joshi | Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Proceedings of COLING 2012: Demonstration Papers