Dong-Ho Lee


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Temporal Knowledge Graph Forecasting Without Knowledge Using In-Context Learning
Dong-Ho Lee | Kian Ahrabian | Woojeong Jin | Fred Morstatter | Jay Pujara
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Temporal knowledge graph (TKG) forecasting benchmarks challenge models to predict future facts using knowledge of past facts. In this paper, we develop an approach to use in-context learning (ICL) with large language models (LLMs) for TKG forecasting. Our extensive evaluation compares diverse baselines, including both simple heuristics and state-of-the-art (SOTA) supervised models, against pre-trained LLMs across several popular benchmarks and experimental settings. We observe that naive LLMs perform on par with SOTA models, which employ carefully designed architectures and supervised training for the forecasting task, falling within the (-3.6%, +1.5%) Hits@1 margin relative to the median performance. To better understand the strengths of LLMs for forecasting, we explore different approaches for selecting historical facts, constructing prompts, controlling information propagation, and parsing outputs into a probability distribution. A surprising finding from our experiments is that LLM performance endures (±0.4% Hit@1) even when semantic information is removed by mapping entities/relations to arbitrary numbers, suggesting that prior semantic knowledge is unnecessary; rather, LLMs can leverage the symbolic patterns in the context to achieve such a strong performance. Our analysis also reveals that ICL enables LLMs to learn irregular patterns from the historical context, going beyond frequency and recency biases

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Analyzing Norm Violations in Live-Stream Chat
Jihyung Moon | Dong-Ho Lee | Hyundong Cho | Woojeong Jin | Chan Park | Minwoo Kim | Jonathan May | Jay Pujara | Sungjoon Park
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Toxic language, such as hate speech, can deter users from participating in online communities and enjoying popular platforms. Previous approaches to detecting toxic language and norm violations have been primarily concerned with conversations from online forums and social media, such as Reddit and Twitter. These approaches are less effective when applied to conversations on live-streaming platforms, such as Twitch and YouTube Live, as each comment is only visible for a limited time and lacks a thread structure that establishes its relationship with other comments. In this work, we share the first NLP study dedicated to detecting norm violations in conversations on live-streaming platforms. We define norm violation categories in live-stream chats and annotate 4,583 moderated comments from Twitch. We articulate several facets of live-stream data that differ from other forums, and demonstrate that existing models perform poorly in this setting. By conducting a user study, we identify the informational context humans use in live-stream moderation, and train models leveraging context to identify norm violations. Our results show that appropriate contextual information can boost moderation performance by 35%.

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Making Large Language Models Better Data Creators
Dong-Ho Lee | Jay Pujara | Mohit Sewak | Ryen White | Sujay Jauhar
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although large language models (LLMs) have advanced the state-of-the-art in NLP significantly, deploying them for downstream applications is still challenging due to cost, responsiveness, control, or concerns around privacy and security. As such, trainable models are still the preferred option in some cases. However, these models still require human-labeled data for optimal performance, which is expensive and time-consuming to obtain. In order to address this issue, several techniques to reduce human effort involve labeling or generating data using LLMs. Although these methods are effective for certain applications, in practice they encounter difficulties in real-world scenarios. Labeling data requires careful data selection, while generating data necessitates task-specific prompt engineering. In this paper, we propose a unified data creation pipeline that requires only a single formatting example, and which is applicable to a broad range of tasks, including traditionally problematic ones with semantically devoid label spaces. In our experiments we demonstrate that instruction-following LLMs are highly cost-effective data creators, and that models trained with these data exhibit performance better than those trained with human-labeled data (by up to 17.5%) on out-of-distribution evaluation, while maintaining comparable performance on in-distribution tasks. These results have important implications for the robustness of NLP systems deployed in the real-world.

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XMD: An End-to-End Framework for Interactive Explanation-Based Debugging of NLP Models
Dong-Ho Lee | Akshen Kadakia | Brihi Joshi | Aaron Chan | Ziyi Liu | Kiran Narahari | Takashi Shibuya | Ryosuke Mitani | Toshiyuki Sekiya | Jay Pujara | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

NLP models are susceptible to learning spurious biases (i.e., bugs) that work on some datasets but do not properly reflect the underlying task. Explanation-based model debugging aims to resolve spurious biases by showing human users explanations of model behavior, asking users to give feedback on the behavior, thenusing the feedback to update the model. While existing model debugging methods have shown promise, their prototype-level implementations provide limited practical utility. Thus, we propose XMD: the first open-source, end-to-end framework for explanation-based model debugging. Given task- or instance-level explanations,users can flexibly provide various forms of feedback via an intuitive, web-based UI. After receiving user feedback, XMD automatically updates the model in real time, by regularizing the model so that its explanationsalign with the user feedback. The new model can then be easily deployed into real-world applications via Hugging Face. Using XMD, we can improve the model’s OOD performance on text classification tasks by up to 18%.

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AutoTriggER: Label-Efficient and Robust Named Entity Recognition with Auxiliary Trigger Extraction
Dong-Ho Lee | Ravi Kiran Selvam | Sheikh Muhammad Sarwar | Bill Yuchen Lin | Fred Morstatter | Jay Pujara | Elizabeth Boschee | James Allan | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Deep neural models for named entity recognition (NER) have shown impressive results in overcoming label scarcity and generalizing to unseen entities by leveraging distant supervision and auxiliary information such as explanations. However, the costs of acquiring such additional information are generally prohibitive. In this paper, we present a novel two-stage framework (AutoTriggER) to improve NER performance by automatically generating and leveraging “entity triggers” which are human-readable cues in the text that help guide the model to make better decisions. Our framework leverages post-hoc explanation to generate rationales and strengthens a model’s prior knowledge using an embedding interpolation technique. This approach allows models to exploit triggers to infer entity boundaries and types instead of solely memorizing the entity words themselves. Through experiments on three well-studied NER datasets, AutoTriggER shows strong label-efficiency, is capable of generalizing to unseen entities, and outperforms the RoBERTa-CRF baseline by nearly 0.5 F1 points on average.


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Good Examples Make A Faster Learner: Simple Demonstration-based Learning for Low-resource NER
Dong-Ho Lee | Akshen Kadakia | Kangmin Tan | Mahak Agarwal | Xinyu Feng | Takashi Shibuya | Ryosuke Mitani | Toshiyuki Sekiya | Jay Pujara | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent advances in prompt-based learning have shown strong results on few-shot text classification by using cloze-style templates. Similar attempts have been made on named entity recognition (NER) which manually design templates to predict entity types for every text span in a sentence. However, such methods may suffer from error propagation induced by entity span detection, high cost due to enumeration of all possible text spans, and omission of inter-dependencies among token labels in a sentence. Here we present a simple demonstration-based learning method for NER, which lets the input be prefaced by task demonstrations for in-context learning. We perform a systematic study on demonstration strategy regarding what to include (entity examples, with or without surrounding context), how to select the examples, and what templates to use. Results on in-domain learning and domain adaptation show that the model’s performance in low-resource settings can be largely improved with a suitable demonstration strategy (e.g., a 4-17% improvement on 25 train instances). We also find that good demonstration can save many labeled examples and consistency in demonstration contributes to better performance.

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Leveraging Visual Knowledge in Language Tasks: An Empirical Study on Intermediate Pre-training for Cross-Modal Knowledge Transfer
Woojeong Jin | Dong-Ho Lee | Chenguang Zhu | Jay Pujara | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Pre-trained language models are still far from human performance in tasks that need understanding of properties (e.g. appearance, measurable quantity) and affordances of everyday objects in the real world since the text lacks such information due to reporting bias. In this work, we study whether integrating visual knowledge into a language model can fill the gap. We investigate two types of knowledge transfer: (1) text knowledge transfer using image captions that may contain enriched visual knowledge and (2) cross-modal knowledge transfer using both images and captions with vision-language training objectives.On 5 downstream tasks that may need visual knowledge to solve the problem, we perform extensive empirical comparisons over the presented objectives.Our experiments show that visual knowledge transfer can improve performance in both low-resource and fully supervised settings.

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Reflect, Not Reflex: Inference-Based Common Ground Improves Dialogue Response Quality
Pei Zhou | Hyundong Cho | Pegah Jandaghi | Dong-Ho Lee | Bill Yuchen Lin | Jay Pujara | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Human communication relies on common ground (CG), the mutual knowledge and beliefs shared by participants, to produce coherent and interesting conversations. In this paper, we demonstrate that current response generation (RG) models produce generic and dull responses in dialogues because they act reflexively, failing to explicitly model CG, both due to the lack of CG in training data and the standard RG training procedure. We introduce Reflect, a dataset that annotates dialogues with explicit CG (materialized as inferences approximating shared knowledge and beliefs) and solicits 9k diverse human-generated responses each following one common ground. Using Reflect, we showcase the limitations of current dialogue data and RG models: less than half of the responses in current data is rated as high quality (sensible, specific, and interesting) and models trained using this data have even lower quality, while most Reflect responses are judged high quality. Next, we analyze whether CG can help models produce better quality responses by using Reflect CG to guide RG models. Surprisingly, we find that simply prompting GPT3 to “think” about CG generates 30% more quality responses, showing promising benefits to integrating CG into the RG process.


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Machine-Assisted Script Curation
Manuel Ciosici | Joseph Cummings | Mitchell DeHaven | Alex Hedges | Yash Kankanampati | Dong-Ho Lee | Ralph Weischedel | Marjorie Freedman
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Demonstrations

We describe Machine-Aided Script Curator (MASC), a system for human-machine collaborative script authoring. Scripts produced with MASC include (1) English descriptions of sub-events that comprise a larger, complex event; (2) event types for each of those events; (3) a record of entities expected to participate in multiple sub-events; and (4) temporal sequencing between the sub-events. MASC automates portions of the script creation process with suggestions for event types, links to Wikidata, and sub-events that may have been forgotten. We illustrate how these automations are useful to the script writer with a few case-study scripts.

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RiddleSense: Reasoning about Riddle Questions Featuring Linguistic Creativity and Commonsense Knowledge
Bill Yuchen Lin | Ziyi Wu | Yichi Yang | Dong-Ho Lee | Xiang Ren
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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Improving Text Auto-Completion with Next Phrase Prediction
Dong-Ho Lee | Zhiqiang Hu | Roy Ka-Wei Lee
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

Language models such as GPT-2 have performed well on constructing syntactically sound sentences for text auto-completion tasks. However, such models often require considerable training effort to adapt to specific writing domains (e.g., medical). In this paper, we propose an intermediate training strategy to enhance pre-trained language models’ performance in the text auto-completion task and fastly adapt them to specific domains. Our strategy includes a novel self-supervised training objective called Next Phrase Prediction (NPP), which encourages a language model to complete the partial query with enriched phrases and eventually improve the model’s text auto-completion performance. Preliminary experiments have shown that our approach is able to outperform the baselines in auto-completion for email and academic-writing domains.

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ForecastQA: A Question Answering Challenge for Event Forecasting with Temporal Text Data
Woojeong Jin | Rahul Khanna | Suji Kim | Dong-Ho Lee | Fred Morstatter | Aram Galstyan | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Event forecasting is a challenging, yet important task, as humans seek to constantly plan for the future. Existing automated forecasting studies rely mostly on structured data, such as time-series or event-based knowledge graphs, to help predict future events. In this work, we aim to formulate a task, construct a dataset, and provide benchmarks for developing methods for event forecasting with large volumes of unstructured text data. To simulate the forecasting scenario on temporal news documents, we formulate the problem as a restricted-domain, multiple-choice, question-answering (QA) task. Unlike existing QA tasks, our task limits accessible information, and thus a model has to make a forecasting judgement. To showcase the usefulness of this task formulation, we introduce ForecastQA, a question-answering dataset consisting of 10,392 event forecasting questions, which have been collected and verified via crowdsourcing efforts. We present our experiments on ForecastQA using BERTbased models and find that our best model achieves 61.0% accuracy on the dataset, which still lags behind human performance by about 19%. We hope ForecastQA will support future research efforts in bridging this gap.

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Perhaps PTLMs Should Go to School – A Task to Assess Open Book and Closed Book QA
Manuel Ciosici | Joe Cecil | Dong-Ho Lee | Alex Hedges | Marjorie Freedman | Ralph Weischedel
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Our goal is to deliver a new task and leaderboard to stimulate research on question answering and pre-trained language models (PTLMs) to understand a significant instructional document, e.g., an introductory college textbook or a manual. PTLMs have shown great success in many question-answering tasks, given significant supervised training, but much less so in zero-shot settings. We propose a new task that includes two college-level introductory texts in the social sciences (American Government 2e) and humanities (U.S. History), hundreds of true/false statements based on review questions written by the textbook authors, validation/development tests based on the first eight chapters of the textbooks, blind tests based on the remaining textbook chapters, and baseline results given state-of-the-art PTLMs. Since the questions are balanced, random performance should be ~50%. T5, fine-tuned with BoolQ achieves the same performance, suggesting that the textbook’s content is not pre-represented in the PTLM. Taking the exam closed book, but having read the textbook (i.e., adding the textbook to T5’s pre-training), yields at best minor improvement (56%), suggesting that the PTLM may not have “understood” the textbook (or perhaps misunderstood the questions). Performance is better (~60%) when the exam is taken open-book (i.e., allowing the machine to automatically retrieve a paragraph and use it to answer the question).


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TriggerNER: Learning with Entity Triggers as Explanations for Named Entity Recognition
Bill Yuchen Lin | Dong-Ho Lee | Ming Shen | Ryan Moreno | Xiao Huang | Prashant Shiralkar | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Training neural models for named entity recognition (NER) in a new domain often requires additional human annotations (e.g., tens of thousands of labeled instances) that are usually expensive and time-consuming to collect. Thus, a crucial research question is how to obtain supervision in a cost-effective way. In this paper, we introduce “entity triggers,” an effective proxy of human explanations for facilitating label-efficient learning of NER models. An entity trigger is defined as a group of words in a sentence that helps to explain why humans would recognize an entity in the sentence. We crowd-sourced 14k entity triggers for two well-studied NER datasets. Our proposed model, Trigger Matching Network, jointly learns trigger representations and soft matching module with self-attention such that can generalize to unseen sentences easily for tagging. Our framework is significantly more cost-effective than the traditional neural NER frameworks. Experiments show that using only 20% of the trigger-annotated sentences results in a comparable performance as using 70% of conventional annotated sentences.

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LEAN-LIFE: A Label-Efficient Annotation Framework Towards Learning from Explanation
Dong-Ho Lee | Rahul Khanna | Bill Yuchen Lin | Seyeon Lee | Qinyuan Ye | Elizabeth Boschee | Leonardo Neves | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Successfully training a deep neural network demands a huge corpus of labeled data. However, each label only provides limited information to learn from, and collecting the requisite number of labels involves massive human effort. In this work, we introduce LEAN-LIFE, a web-based, Label-Efficient AnnotatioN framework for sequence labeling and classification tasks, with an easy-to-use UI that not only allows an annotator to provide the needed labels for a task but also enables LearnIng From Explanations for each labeling decision. Such explanations enable us to generate useful additional labeled data from unlabeled instances, bolstering the pool of available training data. On three popular NLP tasks (named entity recognition, relation extraction, sentiment analysis), we find that using this enhanced supervision allows our models to surpass competitive baseline F1 scores by more than 5-10 percentage points, while using 2X times fewer labeled instances. Our framework is the first to utilize this enhanced supervision technique and does so for three important tasks – thus providing improved annotation recommendations to users and an ability to build datasets of (data, label, explanation) triples instead of the regular (data, label) pair.


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AlpacaTag: An Active Learning-based Crowd Annotation Framework for Sequence Tagging
Bill Yuchen Lin | Dong-Ho Lee | Frank F. Xu | Ouyu Lan | Xiang Ren
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We introduce an open-source web-based data annotation framework (AlpacaTag) for sequence tagging tasks such as named-entity recognition (NER). The distinctive advantages of AlpacaTag are three-fold. 1) Active intelligent recommendation: dynamically suggesting annotations and sampling the most informative unlabeled instances with a back-end active learned model; 2) Automatic crowd consolidation: enhancing real-time inter-annotator agreement by merging inconsistent labels from multiple annotators; 3) Real-time model deployment: users can deploy their models in downstream systems while new annotations are being made. AlpacaTag is a comprehensive solution for sequence labeling tasks, ranging from rapid tagging with recommendations powered by active learning and auto-consolidation of crowd annotations to real-time model deployment.