While pre-trained language models (PLMs) have become a de-facto standard promoting the accuracy of text classification tasks, recent studies find that PLMs often predict over-confidently. Although calibration methods have been proposed, such as ensemble learning and data augmentation, most of the methods have been verified in computer vision benchmarks rather than in PLM-based text classification tasks. In this paper, we present an empirical study on confidence calibration for PLMs, addressing three categories, including confidence penalty losses, data augmentations, and ensemble methods. We find that the ensemble model overfitted to the training set shows sub-par calibration performance and also observe that PLMs trained with confidence penalty loss have a trade-off between calibration and accuracy. Building on these observations, we propose the Calibrated PLM (CALL), a combination of calibration techniques. The CALL complements shortcomings that may occur when utilizing a calibration method individually and boosts both classification and calibration accuracy. Design choices in CALL’s training procedures are extensively studied, and we provide a detailed analysis of how calibration techniques affect the calibration performance of PLMs.
Pseudo Outlier Exposure for Out-of-Distribution Detection using Pretrained Transformers
Jaeyoung Kim | Kyuheon Jung | Dongbin Na | Sion Jang | Eunbin Park | Sungchul Choi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023
For real-world language applications, detecting an out-of-distribution (OOD) sample is helpful to alert users or reject such unreliable samples. However, modern over-parameterized language models often produce overconfident predictions for both in-distribution (ID) and OOD samples. In particular, language models suffer from OOD samples with a similar semantic representation to ID samples since these OOD samples lie near the ID manifold.A rejection network can be trained with ID and diverse outlier samples to detect test OOD samples, but explicitly collecting auxiliary OOD datasets brings an additional burden for data collection. In this paper, we propose a simple but effective method called Pseudo Outlier Exposure (POE) that constructs a surrogate OOD dataset by sequentially masking tokens related to ID classes. The surrogate OOD sample introduced by POE shows a similar representation to ID data, which is most effective in training a rejection network. Our method does not require any external OOD data and can be easily implemented within off-the-shelf Transformers.A comprehensive comparison with state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrates POE’s competitiveness on several text classification benchmarks.