The state-of-the-art model for structured sentiment analysis casts the task as a dependency parsing problem, which has some limitations: (1) The label proportions for span prediction and span relation prediction are imbalanced. (2) The span lengths of sentiment tuple components may be very large in this task, which will further exacerbates the imbalance problem. (3) Two nodes in a dependency graph cannot have multiple arcs, therefore some overlapped sentiment tuples cannot be recognized. In this work, we propose nichetargeting solutions for these issues. First, we introduce a novel labeling strategy, which contains two sets of token pair labels, namely essential label set and whole label set. The essential label set consists of the basic labels for this task, which are relatively balanced and applied in the prediction layer. The whole label set includes rich labels to help our model capture various token relations, which are applied in the hidden layer to softly influence our model. Moreover, we also propose an effective model to well collaborate with our labeling strategy, which is equipped with the graph attention networks to iteratively refine token representations, and the adaptive multi-label classifier to dynamically predict multiple relations between token pairs. We perform extensive experiments on 5 benchmark datasets in four languages. Experimental results show that our model outperforms previous SOTA models by a large margin.
Relation Extraction (RE) is a fundamental task of information extraction, which has attracted a large amount of research attention. Previous studies focus on extracting the relations within a sentence or document, while currently researchers begin to explore cross-document RE. However, current cross-document RE methods directly utilize text snippets surrounding target entities in multiple given documents, which brings considerable noisy and non-relevant sentences. Moreover, they utilize all the text paths in a document bag in a coarse-grained way, without considering the connections between these text paths.In this paper, we aim to address both of these shortages and push the state-of-the-art for cross-document RE. First, we focus on input construction for our RE model and propose an entity-based document-context filter to retain useful information in the given documents by using the bridge entities in the text paths. Second, we propose a cross-document RE model based on cross-path entity relation attention, which allow the entity relations across text paths to interact with each other. We compare our cross-document RE method with the state-of-the-art methods in the dataset CodRED. Our method outperforms them by at least 10% in F1, thus demonstrating its effectiveness.
Event extraction (EE) is an essential task of information extraction, which aims to extract structured event information from unstructured text. Most prior work focuses on extracting flat events while neglecting overlapped or nested ones. A few models for overlapped and nested EE includes several successive stages to extract event triggers and arguments,which suffer from error propagation. Therefore, we design a simple yet effective tagging scheme and model to formulate EE as word-word relation recognition, called OneEE. The relations between trigger or argument words are simultaneously recognized in one stage with parallel grid tagging, thus yielding a very fast event extraction speed. The model is equipped with an adaptive event fusion module to generate event-aware representations and a distance-aware predictor to integrate relative distance information for word-word relation recognition, which are empirically demonstrated to be effective mechanisms. Experiments on 3 overlapped and nested EE benchmarks, namely FewFC, Genia11, and Genia13, show that OneEE achieves the state-of-the-art (SOTA) results. Moreover, the inference speed of OneEE is faster than those of baselines in the same condition, and can be further substantially improved since it supports parallel inference.
Emotion cause pair extraction (ECPE), as one of the derived subtasks of emotion cause analysis (ECA), shares rich inter-related features with emotion extraction (EE) and cause extraction (CE). Therefore EE and CE are frequently utilized as auxiliary tasks for better feature learning, modeled via multi-task learning (MTL) framework by prior works to achieve state-of-the-art (SoTA) ECPE results. However, existing MTL-based methods either fail to simultaneously model the specific features and the interactive feature in between, or suffer from the inconsistency of label prediction. In this work, we consider addressing the above challenges for improving ECPE by performing two alignment mechanisms with a novel Aˆ2Net model. We first propose a feature-task alignment to explicitly model the specific emotion-&cause-specific features and the shared interactive feature. Besides, an inter-task alignment is implemented, in which the label distance between the ECPE and the combinations of EE&CE are learned to be narrowed for better label consistency. Evaluations of benchmarks show that our methods outperform current best-performing systems on all ECA subtasks. Further analysis proves the importance of our proposed alignment mechanisms for the task.
Research on overlapped and discontinuous named entity recognition (NER) has received increasing attention. The majority of previous work focuses on either overlapped or discontinuous entities. In this paper, we propose a novel span-based model that can recognize both overlapped and discontinuous entities jointly. The model includes two major steps. First, entity fragments are recognized by traversing over all possible text spans, thus, overlapped entities can be recognized. Second, we perform relation classification to judge whether a given pair of entity fragments to be overlapping or succession. In this way, we can recognize not only discontinuous entities, and meanwhile doubly check the overlapped entities. As a whole, our model can be regarded as a relation extraction paradigm essentially. Experimental results on multiple benchmark datasets (i.e., CLEF, GENIA and ACE05) show that our model is highly competitive for overlapped and discontinuous NER.
Recent studies show that integrating syntactic tree models with sequential semantic models can bring improved task performance, while these methods mostly employ shallow integration of syntax and semantics. In this paper, we propose a deep neural communication model between syntax and semantics to improve the performance of text understanding. Local communication is performed between syntactic tree encoder and sequential semantic encoder for mutual learning of information exchange. Global communication can further ensure comprehensive information propagation. Results on multiple syntax-dependent tasks show that our model outperforms strong baselines by a large margin. In-depth analysis indicates that our method is highly effective in composing sentence semantics.
Syntax has been shown useful for various NLP tasks, while existing work mostly encodes singleton syntactic tree using one hierarchical neural network. In this paper, we investigate a simple and effective method, Knowledge Distillation, to integrate heterogeneous structure knowledge into a unified sequential LSTM encoder. Experimental results on four typical syntax-dependent tasks show that our method outperforms tree encoders by effectively integrating rich heterogeneous structure syntax, meanwhile reducing error propagation, and also outperforms ensemble methods, in terms of both the efficiency and accuracy.
Current end-to-end semantic role labeling is mostly accomplished via graph-based neural models. However, these all are first-order models, where each decision for detecting any predicate-argument pair is made in isolation with local features. In this paper, we present a high-order refining mechanism to perform interaction between all predicate-argument pairs. Based on the baseline graph model, our high-order refining module learns higher-order features between all candidate pairs via attention calculation, which are later used to update the original token representations. After several iterations of refinement, the underlying token representations can be enriched with globally interacted features. Our high-order model achieves state-of-the-art results on Chinese SRL data, including CoNLL09 and Universal Proposition Bank, meanwhile relieving the long-range dependency issues.
Abstract Meaning Representations (AMRs) capture sentence-level semantics structural representations to broad-coverage natural sentences. We investigate parsing AMR with explicit dependency structures and interpretable latent structures. We generate the latent soft structure without additional annotations, and fuse both dependency and latent structure via an extended graph neural networks. The fused structural information helps our experiments results to achieve the best reported results on both AMR 2.0 (77.5% Smatch F1 on LDC2017T10) and AMR 1.0 ((71.8% Smatch F1 on LDC2014T12).
Aspect-based sentiment classification is a popular task aimed at identifying the corresponding emotion of a specific aspect. One sentence may contain various sentiments for different aspects. Many sophisticated methods such as attention mechanism and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been widely employed for handling this challenge. Recently, semantic dependency tree implemented by Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN) is introduced to describe the inner connection between aspects and the associated emotion words. But the improvement is limited due to the noise and instability of dependency trees. To this end, we propose a dependency graph enhanced dual-transformer network (named DGEDT) by jointly considering the flat representations learnt from Transformer and graph-based representations learnt from the corresponding dependency graph in an iterative interaction manner. Specifically, a dual-transformer structure is devised in DGEDT to support mutual reinforcement between the flat representation learning and graph-based representation learning. The idea is to allow the dependency graph to guide the representation learning of the transformer encoder and vice versa. The results on five datasets demonstrate that the proposed DGEDT outperforms all state-of-the-art alternatives with a large margin.
Many efforts of research are devoted to semantic role labeling (SRL) which is crucial for natural language understanding. Supervised approaches have achieved impressing performances when large-scale corpora are available for resource-rich languages such as English. While for the low-resource languages with no annotated SRL dataset, it is still challenging to obtain competitive performances. Cross-lingual SRL is one promising way to address the problem, which has achieved great advances with the help of model transferring and annotation projection. In this paper, we propose a novel alternative based on corpus translation, constructing high-quality training datasets for the target languages from the source gold-standard SRL annotations. Experimental results on Universal Proposition Bank show that the translation-based method is highly effective, and the automatic pseudo datasets can improve the target-language SRL performances significantly.
In this paper, we target improving the joint dialogue act recognition (DAR) and sentiment classification (SC) tasks by fully modeling the local contexts of utterances. First, we employ the dynamic convolution network (DCN) as the utterance encoder to capture the dialogue contexts. Further, we propose a novel context-aware dynamic convolution network (CDCN) to better leverage the local contexts when dynamically generating kernels. We extended our frameworks into bi-channel version (i.e., BDCN and BCDCN) under multi-task learning to achieve the joint DAR and SC. Two channels can learn their own feature representations for DAR and SC, respectively, but with latent interaction. Besides, we suggest enhancing the tasks by employing the DiaBERT language model. Our frameworks obtain state-of-the-art performances against all baselines on two benchmark datasets, demonstrating the importance of modeling the local contexts.
In this paper, we present Chinese lexical fusion recognition, a new task which could be regarded as one kind of coreference recognition. First, we introduce the task in detail, showing the relationship with coreference recognition and differences from the existing tasks. Second, we propose an end-to-end model for the task, handling mentions as well as coreference relationship jointly. The model exploits the state-of-the-art contextualized BERT representations as an encoder, and is further enhanced with the sememe knowledge from HowNet by graph attention networks. We manually annotate a benchmark dataset for the task and then conduct experiments on it. Results demonstrate that our final model is effective and competitive for the task. Detailed analysis is offered for comprehensively understanding the new task and our proposed model.
Emotion detection in conversations (EDC) is to detect the emotion for each utterance in conversations that have multiple speakers. Different from the traditional non-conversational emotion detection, the model for EDC should be context-sensitive (e.g., understanding the whole conversation rather than one utterance) and speaker-sensitive (e.g., understanding which utterance belongs to which speaker). In this paper, we propose a transformer-based context- and speaker-sensitive model for EDC, namely HiTrans, which consists of two hierarchical transformers. We utilize BERT as the low-level transformer to generate local utterance representations, and feed them into another high-level transformer so that utterance representations could be sensitive to the global context of the conversation. Moreover, we exploit an auxiliary task to make our model speaker-sensitive, called pairwise utterance speaker verification (PUSV), which aims to classify whether two utterances belong to the same speaker. We evaluate our model on three benchmark datasets, namely EmoryNLP, MELD and IEMOCAP. Results show that our model outperforms previous state-of-the-art models.
We consider retrofitting structure-aware Transformer language model for facilitating end tasks by proposing to exploit syntactic distance to encode both the phrasal constituency and dependency connection into the language model. A middle-layer structural learning strategy is leveraged for structure integration, accomplished with main semantic task training under multi-task learning scheme. Experimental results show that the retrofitted structure-aware Transformer language model achieves improved perplexity, meanwhile inducing accurate syntactic phrases. By performing structure-aware fine-tuning, our model achieves significant improvements for both semantic- and syntactic-dependent tasks.
abstract In this article, we describe our approach for the Bacteria Biotopes relation extraction (BB-rel) subtask in the BioNLP Shared Task 2019. This task aims to promote the development of text mining systems that extract relationships between Microorganism, Habitat and Phenotype entities. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for dependency graph construction based on lexical chains, so one dependency graph can represent one or multiple sentences. After that, we propose a neural network model which consists of the bidirectional long short-term memories and an attention graph convolution neural network to learn relation extraction features from the graph. Our approach is able to extract both intra- and inter-sentence relations, and meanwhile utilize syntax information. The results show that our approach achieved the best F1 (66.3%) in the official evaluation participated by 7 teams.
Chinese sentences are written as sequences of characters, which are elementary units of syntax and semantics. Characters are highly polysemous in forming words. We present a position-sensitive skip-gram model to learn multi-prototype Chinese character embeddings, and explore the usefulness of such character embeddings to Chinese NLP tasks. Evaluation on character similarity shows that multi-prototype embeddings are significantly better than a single-prototype baseline. In addition, used as features in the Chinese NER task, the embeddings result in a 1.74% F-score improvement over a state-of-the-art baseline.
Aspect phrase grouping is an important task in aspect-level sentiment analysis. It is a challenging problem due to polysemy and context dependency. We propose an Attention-based Deep Distance Metric Learning (ADDML) method, by considering aspect phrase representation as well as context representation. First, leveraging the characteristics of the review text, we automatically generate aspect phrase sample pairs for distant supervision. Second, we feed word embeddings of aspect phrases and their contexts into an attention-based neural network to learn feature representation of contexts. Both aspect phrase embedding and context embedding are used to learn a deep feature subspace for measure the distances between aspect phrases for K-means clustering. Experiments on four review datasets show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art strong baseline methods.
Catchwords refer to popular words or phrases within certain area in certain period of time. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for automatic Chinese catchwords extraction. At the beginning, we discuss the linguistic definition of catchwords and analyze the features of catchwords by manual evaluation. According to those features of catchwords, we define three aspects to describe Popular Degree of catchwords. To extract terms with maximum meaning, we adopt an effective ATE algorithm for multi-character words and long phrases. Then we use conic fitting in Time Series Analysis to build Popular Degree Curves of extracted terms. To calculate Popular Degree Values of catchwords, a formula is proposed which includes values of Popular Trend, Peak Value and Popular Keeping. Finally, a ranking list of catchword candidates is built according to Popular Degree Values. Experiments show that automatic Chinese catchword extraction is effective and objective in comparison with manual evaluation.