Dongxiang Zhang


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TLM: Token-Level Masking for Transformers
Yangjun Wu | Kebin Fang | Dongxiang Zhang | Han Wang | Hao Zhang | Gang Chen
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Structured dropout approaches, such as attention dropout and DropHead, have been investigated to regularize the multi-head attention mechanism in Transformers. In this paper, we propose a new regularization scheme based on token-level rather than structure-level to reduce overfitting. Specifically, we devise a novel Token-Level Masking (TLM) training strategy for Transformers to regularize the connections of self-attention, which consists of two masking techniques that are effective and easy to implement. The underlying idea is to manipulate the connections between tokens in the multi-head attention via masking, where the networks are forced to exploit partial neighbors’ information to produce a meaningful representation. The generality and effectiveness of TLM are thoroughly evaluated via extensive experiments on 4 diversified NLP tasks across 18 datasets, including natural language understanding benchmark GLUE, ChineseGLUE, Chinese Grammatical Error Correction, and data-to-text generation. The results indicate that TLM can consistently outperform attention dropout and DropHead, e.g., it increases by 0.5 points relative to DropHead with BERT-large on GLUE. Moreover, TLM can establish a new record on the data-to-text benchmark Rotowire (18.93 BLEU). Our code will be publicly available at


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Incorporating Instructional Prompts into a Unified Generative Framework for Joint Multiple Intent Detection and Slot Filling
Yangjun Wu | Han Wang | Dongxiang Zhang | Gang Chen | Hao Zhang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The joint multiple Intent Detection (ID) and Slot Filling (SF) is a significant challenge in spoken language understanding. Because the slots in an utterance may relate to multi-intents, most existing approaches focus on utilizing task-specific components to capture the relations between intents and slots. The customized networks restrict models from modeling commonalities between tasks and generalization for broader applications. To address the above issue, we propose a Unified Generative framework (UGEN) based on a prompt-based paradigm, and formulate the task as a question-answering problem. Specifically, we design 5-type templates as instructional prompts, and each template includes a question that acts as the driver to teach UGEN to grasp the paradigm, options that list the candidate intents or slots to reduce the answer search space, and the context denotes original utterance. Through the instructional prompts, UGEN is guided to understand intents, slots, and their implicit correlations. On two popular multi-intent benchmark datasets, experimental results demonstrate that UGEN achieves new SOTA performances on full-data and surpasses the baselines by a large margin on 5-shot (28.1%) and 10-shot (23%) scenarios, which verify that UGEN is robust and effective.


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Meta-Learning Adversarial Domain Adaptation Network for Few-Shot Text Classification
Chengcheng Han | Zeqiu Fan | Dongxiang Zhang | Minghui Qiu | Ming Gao | Aoying Zhou
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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Modeling Intra-Relation in Math Word Problems with Different Functional Multi-Head Attentions
Jierui Li | Lei Wang | Jipeng Zhang | Yan Wang | Bing Tian Dai | Dongxiang Zhang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Several deep learning models have been proposed for solving math word problems (MWPs) automatically. Although these models have the ability to capture features without manual efforts, their approaches to capturing features are not specifically designed for MWPs. To utilize the merits of deep learning models with simultaneous consideration of MWPs’ specific features, we propose a group attention mechanism to extract global features, quantity-related features, quantity-pair features and question-related features in MWPs respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed approach performs significantly better than previous state-of-the-art methods, and boost performance from 66.9% to 69.5% on Math23K with training-test split, from 65.8% to 66.9% on Math23K with 5-fold cross-validation and from 69.2% to 76.1% on MAWPS.


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Translating a Math Word Problem to a Expression Tree
Lei Wang | Yan Wang | Deng Cai | Dongxiang Zhang | Xiaojiang Liu
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sequence-to-sequence (SEQ2SEQ) models have been successfully applied to automatic math word problem solving. Despite its simplicity, a drawback still remains: a math word problem can be correctly solved by more than one equations. This non-deterministic transduction harms the performance of maximum likelihood estimation. In this paper, by considering the uniqueness of expression tree, we propose an equation normalization method to normalize the duplicated equations. Moreover, we analyze the performance of three popular SEQ2SEQ models on the math word problem solving. We find that each model has its own specialty in solving problems, consequently an ensemble model is then proposed to combine their advantages. Experiments on dataset Math23K show that the ensemble model with equation normalization significantly outperforms the previous state-of-the-art methods.