Eduardo Calò


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Is Shortest Always Best? The Role of Brevity in Logic-to-Text Generation
Eduardo Calò | Jordi Levy | Albert Gatt | Kees Van Deemter
Proceedings of the 12th Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2023)

Some applications of artificial intelligence make it desirable that logical formulae be converted computationally to comprehensible natural language sentences. As there are many logical equivalents to a given formula, finding the most suitable equivalent to be used as input for such a “logic-to-text” generation system is a difficult challenge. In this paper, we focus on the role of brevity: Are the shortest formulae the most suitable? We focus on propositional logic (PL), framing formula minimization (i.e., the problem of finding the shortest equivalent of a given formula) as a Quantified Boolean Formulae (QBFs) satisfiability problem. We experiment with several generators and selection strategies to prune the resulting candidates. We conduct exhaustive automatic and human evaluations of the comprehensibility and fluency of the generated texts. The results suggest that while, in many cases, minimization has a positive impact on the quality of the sentences generated, formula minimization may ultimately not be the best strategy.

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„Mann“ is to “Donna” as「国王」is to « Reine » Adapting the Analogy Task for Multilingual and Contextual Embeddings
Timothee Mickus | Eduardo Calò | Léo Jacqmin | Denis Paperno | Mathieu Constant
Proceedings of the 12th Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2023)

How does the word analogy task fit in the modern NLP landscape? Given the rarity of comparable multilingual benchmarks and the lack of a consensual evaluation protocol for contextual models, this remains an open question. In this paper, we introduce MATS: a multilingual analogy dataset, covering forty analogical relations in six languages, and evaluate human as well as static and contextual embedding performances on the task. We find that not all analogical relations are equally straightforward for humans, static models remain competitive with contextual embeddings, and optimal settings vary across languages and analogical relations. Several key challenges remain, including creating benchmarks that align with human reasoning and understanding what drives differences across methodologies.


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Enhancing and Evaluating the Grammatical Framework Approach to Logic-to-Text Generation
Eduardo Calò | Elze van der Werf | Albert Gatt | Kees van Deemter
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Natural Language Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics (GEM)

Logic-to-text generation is an important yet underrepresented area of natural language generation (NLG). In particular, most previous works on this topic lack sound evaluation. We address this limitation by building and evaluating a system that generates high-quality English text given a first-order logic (FOL) formula as input. We start by analyzing the performance of Ranta (2011)’s system. Based on this analysis, we develop an extended version of the system, which we name LoLa, that performs formula simplification based on logical equivalences and syntactic transformations. We carry out an extensive evaluation of LoLa using standard automatic metrics and human evaluation. We compare the results against a baseline and Ranta (2011)’s system. The results show that LoLa outperforms the other two systems in most aspects.


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GECko+: a Grammatical and Discourse Error Correction Tool
Eduardo Calò | Léo Jacqmin | Thibo Rosemplatt | Maxime Amblard | Miguel Couceiro | Ajinkya Kulkarni
Actes de la 28e Conférence sur le Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles. Volume 3 : Démonstrations

GECko+ : a Grammatical and Discourse Error Correction Tool We introduce GECko+, a web-based writing assistance tool for English that corrects errors both at the sentence and at the discourse level. It is based on two state-of-the-art models for grammar error correction and sentence ordering. GECko+ is available online as a web application that implements a pipeline combining the two models.