Ehsaneddin Asgari


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Keyword-based Natural Language Premise Selection for an Automatic Mathematical Statement Proving
Doratossadat Dastgheib | Ehsaneddin Asgari
Proceedings of TextGraphs-16: Graph-based Methods for Natural Language Processing

Extraction of supportive premises for a mathematical problem can contribute to profound success in improving automatic reasoning systems. One bottleneck in automated theorem proving is the lack of a proper semantic information retrieval system for mathematical texts. In this paper, we show the effect of keyword extraction in the natural language premise selection (NLPS) shared task proposed in TextGraph-16 that seeks to select the most relevant sentences supporting a given mathematical statement.

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Docalog: Multi-document Dialogue System using Transformer-based Span Retrieval
Sayed Hesam Alavian | Ali Satvaty | Sadra Sabouri | Ehsaneddin Asgari | Hossein Sameti
Proceedings of the Second DialDoc Workshop on Document-grounded Dialogue and Conversational Question Answering

Information-seeking dialogue systems, including knowledge identification and response generation, aim to respond to users with fluent, coherent, and informative answers based on users’ needs. This paper discusses our proposed approach, Docalog, for the DialDoc-22 (MultiDoc2Dial) shared task. Docalog identifies the most relevant knowledge in the associated document, in a multi-document setting. Docalog, is a three-stage pipeline consisting of (1) a document retriever model (DR. TEIT), (2) an answer span prediction model, and (3) an ultimate span picker deciding on the most likely answer span, out of all predicted spans. In the test phase of MultiDoc2Dial 2022, Docalog achieved f1-scores of 36.07% and 28.44% and SacreBLEU scores of 23.70% and 20.52%, respectively on the MDD-SEEN and MDD-UNSEEN folds.

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Hengam: An Adversarially Trained Transformer for Persian Temporal Tagging
Sajad Mirzababaei | Amir Hossein Kargaran | Hinrich Schütze | Ehsaneddin Asgari
Proceedings of the 2nd Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 12th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Many NLP main tasks benefit from an accurate understanding of temporal expressions, e.g., text summarization, question answering, and information retrieval. This paper introduces Hengam, an adversarially trained transformer for Persian temporal tagging outperforming state-of-the-art approaches on a diverse and manually created dataset. We create Hengam in the following concrete steps: (1) we develop HengamTagger, an extensible rule-based tool that can extract temporal expressions from a set of diverse language-specific patterns for any language of interest. (2) We apply HengamTagger to annotate temporal tags in a large and diverse Persian text collection (covering both formal and informal contexts) to be used as weakly labeled data. (3) We introduce an adversarially trained transformer model on HengamCorpus that can generalize over the HengamTagger’s rules. We create HengamGold, the first high-quality gold standard for Persian temporal tagging. Our trained adversarial HengamTransformer not only achieves the best performance in terms of the F1-score (a type F1-Score of 95.42 and a partial F1-Score of 91.60) but also successfully deals with language ambiguities and incorrect spellings. Our code, data, and models are publicly available at


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KnowMAN: Weakly Supervised Multinomial Adversarial Networks
Luisa März | Ehsaneddin Asgari | Fabienne Braune | Franziska Zimmermann | Benjamin Roth
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The absence of labeled data for training neural models is often addressed by leveraging knowledge about the specific task, resulting in heuristic but noisy labels. The knowledge is captured in labeling functions, which detect certain regularities or patterns in the training samples and annotate corresponding labels for training. This process of weakly supervised training may result in an over-reliance on the signals captured by the labeling functions and hinder models to exploit other signals or to generalize well. We propose KnowMAN, an adversarial scheme that enables to control influence of signals associated with specific labeling functions. KnowMAN forces the network to learn representations that are invariant to those signals and to pick up other signals that are more generally associated with an output label. KnowMAN strongly improves results compared to direct weakly supervised learning with a pre-trained transformer language model and a feature-based baseline.


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UniSent: Universal Adaptable Sentiment Lexica for 1000+ Languages
Ehsaneddin Asgari | Fabienne Braune | Benjamin Roth | Christoph Ringlstetter | Mohammad Mofrad
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In this paper, we introduce UniSent universal sentiment lexica for 1000+ languages. Sentiment lexica are vital for sentiment analysis in absence of document-level annotations, a very common scenario for low-resource languages. To the best of our knowledge, UniSent is the largest sentiment resource to date in terms of the number of covered languages, including many low resource ones. In this work, we use a massively parallel Bible corpus to project sentiment information from English to other languages for sentiment analysis on Twitter data. We introduce a method called DomDrift to mitigate the huge domain mismatch between Bible and Twitter by a confidence weighting scheme that uses domain-specific embeddings to compare the nearest neighbors for a candidate sentiment word in the source (Bible) and target (Twitter) domain. We evaluate the quality of UniSent in a subset of languages for which manually created ground truth was available, Macedonian, Czech, German, Spanish, and French. We show that the quality of UniSent is comparable to manually created sentiment resources when it is used as the sentiment seed for the task of word sentiment prediction on top of embedding representations. In addition, we show that emoticon sentiments could be reliably predicted in the Twitter domain using only UniSent and monolingual embeddings in German, Spanish, French, and Italian. With the publication of this paper, we release the UniSent sentiment lexica at

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EmbLexChange at SemEval-2020 Task 1: Unsupervised Embedding-based Detection of Lexical Semantic Changes
Ehsaneddin Asgari | Christoph Ringlstetter | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes EmbLexChange, a system introduced by the “Life-Language” team for SemEval-2020 Task 1, on unsupervised detection of lexical-semantic changes. EmbLexChange is defined as the divergence between the embedding based profiles of word w (calculated with respect to a set of reference words) in the source and the target domains (source and target domains can be simply two time frames t_1 and t_2). The underlying assumption is that the lexical-semantic change of word w would affect its co-occurring words and subsequently alters the neighborhoods in the embedding spaces. We show that using a resampling framework for the selection of reference words (with conserved senses), we can more reliably detect lexical-semantic changes in English, German, Swedish, and Latin. EmbLexChange achieved second place in the binary detection of semantic changes in the SemEval-2020.


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Past, Present, Future: A Computational Investigation of the Typology of Tense in 1000 Languages
Ehsaneddin Asgari | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We present SuperPivot, an analysis method for low-resource languages that occur in a superparallel corpus, i.e., in a corpus that contains an order of magnitude more languages than parallel corpora currently in use. We show that SuperPivot performs well for the crosslingual analysis of the linguistic phenomenon of tense. We produce analysis results for more than 1000 languages, conducting – to the best of our knowledge – the largest crosslingual computational study performed to date. We extend existing methodology for leveraging parallel corpora for typological analysis by overcoming a limiting assumption of earlier work: We only require that a linguistic feature is overtly marked in a few of thousands of languages as opposed to requiring that it be marked in all languages under investigation.


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Text Analysis and Automatic Triage of Posts in a Mental Health Forum
Ehsaneddin Asgari | Soroush Nasiriany | Mohammad R.K. Mofrad
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Computational Linguistics and Clinical Psychology

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Comparing Fifty Natural Languages and Twelve Genetic Languages Using Word Embedding Language Divergence (WELD) as a Quantitative Measure of Language Distance
Ehsaneddin Asgari | Mohammad R.K. Mofrad
Proceedings of the Workshop on Multilingual and Cross-lingual Methods in NLP


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Linguistic Resources and Topic Models for the Analysis of Persian Poems
Ehsaneddin Asgari | Jean-Cédric Chappelier
Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Literature