Ekaterina Shutova


2021

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Us vs. Them: A Dataset of Populist Attitudes, News Bias and Emotions
Pere-Lluís Huguet Cabot | David Abadi | Agneta Fischer | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Computational modelling of political discourse tasks has become an increasingly important area of research in the field of natural language processing. Populist rhetoric has risen across the political sphere in recent years; however, due to its complex nature, computational approaches to it have been scarce. In this paper, we present the new Us vs. Them dataset, consisting of 6861 Reddit comments annotated for populist attitudes and the first large-scale computational models of this phenomenon. We investigate the relationship between populist mindsets and social groups, as well as a range of emotions typically associated with these. We set a baseline for two tasks associated with populist attitudes and present a set of multi-task learning models that leverage and demonstrate the importance of emotion and group identification as auxiliary tasks.

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Multilingual and cross-lingual document classification: A meta-learning approach
Niels van der Heijden | Helen Yannakoudakis | Pushkar Mishra | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

The great majority of languages in the world are considered under-resourced for successful application of deep learning methods. In this work, we propose a meta-learning approach to document classification in low-resource languages and demonstrate its effectiveness in two different settings: few-shot, cross-lingual adaptation to previously unseen languages; and multilingual joint-training when limited target-language data is available during trai-ing. We conduct a systematic comparison of several meta-learning methods, investigate multiple settings in terms of data availability, and show that meta-learning thrives in settings with a heterogeneous task distribution. We propose a simple, yet effective adjustment to existing meta-learning methods which allows for better and more stable learning, and set a new state-of-the-art on a number of languages while performing on-par on others, using only a small amount of labeled data.

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Recent advances in neural metaphor processing: A linguistic, cognitive and social perspective
Xiaoyu Tong | Ekaterina Shutova | Martha Lewis
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Metaphor is an indispensable part of human cognition and everyday communication. Much research has been conducted elucidating metaphor processing in the mind/brain and the role it plays in communication. in recent years, metaphor processing systems have benefited greatly from these studies, as well as the rapid advances in deep learning for natural language processing (NLP). This paper provides a comprehensive review and discussion of recent developments in automated metaphor processing, in light of the findings about metaphor in the mind, language, and communication, and from the perspective of downstream NLP tasks.

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Ruddit: Norms of Offensiveness for English Reddit Comments
Rishav Hada | Sohi Sudhir | Pushkar Mishra | Helen Yannakoudakis | Saif M. Mohammad | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

On social media platforms, hateful and offensive language negatively impact the mental well-being of users and the participation of people from diverse backgrounds. Automatic methods to detect offensive language have largely relied on datasets with categorical labels. However, comments can vary in their degree of offensiveness. We create the first dataset of English language Reddit comments that has fine-grained, real-valued scores between -1 (maximally supportive) and 1 (maximally offensive). The dataset was annotated using Best–Worst Scaling, a form of comparative annotation that has been shown to alleviate known biases of using rating scales. We show that the method produces highly reliable offensiveness scores. Finally, we evaluate the ability of widely-used neural models to predict offensiveness scores on this new dataset.

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Meta-Learning with Variational Semantic Memory for Word Sense Disambiguation
Yingjun Du | Nithin Holla | Xiantong Zhen | Cees Snoek | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

A critical challenge faced by supervised word sense disambiguation (WSD) is the lack of large annotated datasets with sufficient coverage of words in their diversity of senses. This inspired recent research on few-shot WSD using meta-learning. While such work has successfully applied meta-learning to learn new word senses from very few examples, its performance still lags behind its fully-supervised counterpart. Aiming to further close this gap, we propose a model of semantic memory for WSD in a meta-learning setting. Semantic memory encapsulates prior experiences seen throughout the lifetime of the model, which aids better generalization in limited data settings. Our model is based on hierarchical variational inference and incorporates an adaptive memory update rule via a hypernetwork. We show our model advances the state of the art in few-shot WSD, supports effective learning in extremely data scarce (e.g. one-shot) scenarios and produces meaning prototypes that capture similar senses of distinct words.

2020

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The Pragmatics behind Politics: Modelling Metaphor, Framing and Emotion in Political Discourse
Pere-Lluís Huguet Cabot | Verna Dankers | David Abadi | Agneta Fischer | Ekaterina Shutova
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

There has been an increased interest in modelling political discourse within the natural language processing (NLP) community, in tasks such as political bias and misinformation detection, among others. Metaphor-rich and emotion-eliciting communication strategies are ubiquitous in political rhetoric, according to social science research. Yet, none of the existing computational models of political discourse has incorporated these phenomena. In this paper, we present the first joint models of metaphor, emotion and political rhetoric, and demonstrate that they advance performance in three tasks: predicting political perspective of news articles, party affiliation of politicians and framing of policy issues.

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Learning to Learn to Disambiguate: Meta-Learning for Few-Shot Word Sense Disambiguation
Nithin Holla | Pushkar Mishra | Helen Yannakoudakis | Ekaterina Shutova
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

The success of deep learning methods hinges on the availability of large training datasets annotated for the task of interest. In contrast to human intelligence, these methods lack versatility and struggle to learn and adapt quickly to new tasks, where labeled data is scarce. Meta-learning aims to solve this problem by training a model on a large number of few-shot tasks, with an objective to learn new tasks quickly from a small number of examples. In this paper, we propose a meta-learning framework for few-shot word sense disambiguation (WSD), where the goal is to learn to disambiguate unseen words from only a few labeled instances. Meta-learning approaches have so far been typically tested in an N-way, K-shot classification setting where each task has N classes with K examples per class. Owing to its nature, WSD deviates from this controlled setup and requires the models to handle a large number of highly unbalanced classes. We extend several popular meta-learning approaches to this scenario, and analyze their strengths and weaknesses in this new challenging setting.

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing
Beata Beigman Klebanov | Ekaterina Shutova | Patricia Lichtenstein | Smaranda Muresan | Chee Wee | Anna Feldman | Debanjan Ghosh
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing

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Being neighbourly: Neural metaphor identification in discourse
Verna Dankers | Karan Malhotra | Gaurav Kudva | Volodymyr Medentsiy | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Figurative Language Processing

Existing approaches to metaphor processing typically rely on local features, such as immediate lexico-syntactic contexts or information within a given sentence. However, a large body of corpus-linguistic research suggests that situational information and broader discourse properties influence metaphor production and comprehension. In this paper, we present the first neural metaphor processing architecture that models a broader discourse through the use of attention mechanisms. Our models advance the state of the art on the all POS track of the 2018 VU Amsterdam metaphor identification task. The inclusion of discourse-level information yields further significant improvements.

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Decoding Brain Activity Associated with Literal and Metaphoric Sentence Comprehension Using Distributional Semantic Models
Vesna G. Djokic | Jean Maillard | Luana Bulat | Ekaterina Shutova
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 8

Recent years have seen a growing interest within the natural language processing (NLP) community in evaluating the ability of semantic models to capture human meaning representation in the brain. Existing research has mainly focused on applying semantic models to decode brain activity patterns associated with the meaning of individual words, and, more recently, this approach has been extended to sentences and larger text fragments. Our work is the first to investigate metaphor processing in the brain in this context. We evaluate a range of semantic models (word embeddings, compositional, and visual models) in their ability to decode brain activity associated with reading of both literal and metaphoric sentences. Our results suggest that compositional models and word embeddings are able to capture differences in the processing of literal and metaphoric sentences, providing support for the idea that the literal meaning is not fully accessible during familiar metaphor comprehension.

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Joint Modelling of Emotion and Abusive Language Detection
Santhosh Rajamanickam | Pushkar Mishra | Helen Yannakoudakis | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The rise of online communication platforms has been accompanied by some undesirable effects, such as the proliferation of aggressive and abusive behaviour online. Aiming to tackle this problem, the natural language processing (NLP) community has experimented with a range of techniques for abuse detection. While achieving substantial success, these methods have so far only focused on modelling the linguistic properties of the comments and the online communities of users, disregarding the emotional state of the users and how this might affect their language. The latter is, however, inextricably linked to abusive behaviour. In this paper, we present the first joint model of emotion and abusive language detection, experimenting in a multi-task learning framework that allows one task to inform the other. Our results demonstrate that incorporating affective features leads to significant improvements in abuse detection performance across datasets.

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Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation
Aurelie Herbelot | Xiaodan Zhu | Alexis Palmer | Nathan Schneider | Jonathan May | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

2019

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Modelling the interplay of metaphor and emotion through multitask learning
Verna Dankers | Marek Rei | Martha Lewis | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Metaphors allow us to convey emotion by connecting physical experiences and abstract concepts. The results of previous research in linguistics and psychology suggest that metaphorical phrases tend to be more emotionally evocative than their literal counterparts. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between metaphor and emotion within a computational framework, by proposing the first joint model of these phenomena. We experiment with several multitask learning architectures for this purpose, involving both hard and soft parameter sharing. Our results demonstrate that metaphor identification and emotion prediction mutually benefit from joint learning and our models advance the state of the art in both of these tasks.

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Learning Outside the Box: Discourse-level Features Improve Metaphor Identification
Jesse Mu | Helen Yannakoudakis | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Most current approaches to metaphor identification use restricted linguistic contexts, e.g. by considering only a verb’s arguments or the sentence containing a phrase. Inspired by pragmatic accounts of metaphor, we argue that broader discourse features are crucial for better metaphor identification. We train simple gradient boosting classifiers on representations of an utterance and its surrounding discourse learned with a variety of document embedding methods, obtaining near state-of-the-art results on the 2018 VU Amsterdam metaphor identification task without the complex metaphor-specific features or deep neural architectures employed by other systems. A qualitative analysis further confirms the need for broader context in metaphor processing.

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Abusive Language Detection with Graph Convolutional Networks
Pushkar Mishra | Marco Del Tredici | Helen Yannakoudakis | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Abuse on the Internet represents a significant societal problem of our time. Previous research on automated abusive language detection in Twitter has shown that community-based profiling of users is a promising technique for this task. However, existing approaches only capture shallow properties of online communities by modeling follower–following relationships. In contrast, working with graph convolutional networks (GCNs), we present the first approach that captures not only the structure of online communities but also the linguistic behavior of the users within them. We show that such a heterogeneous graph-structured modeling of communities significantly advances the current state of the art in abusive language detection.

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Modeling Language Variation and Universals: A Survey on Typological Linguistics for Natural Language Processing
Edoardo Maria Ponti | Helen O’Horan | Yevgeni Berzak | Ivan Vulić | Roi Reichart | Thierry Poibeau | Ekaterina Shutova | Anna Korhonen
Computational Linguistics, Volume 45, Issue 3 - September 2019

Linguistic typology aims to capture structural and semantic variation across the world’s languages. A large-scale typology could provide excellent guidance for multilingual Natural Language Processing (NLP), particularly for languages that suffer from the lack of human labeled resources. We present an extensive literature survey on the use of typological information in the development of NLP techniques. Our survey demonstrates that to date, the use of information in existing typological databases has resulted in consistent but modest improvements in system performance. We show that this is due to both intrinsic limitations of databases (in terms of coverage and feature granularity) and under-utilization of the typological features included in them. We advocate for a new approach that adapts the broad and discrete nature of typological categories to the contextual and continuous nature of machine learning algorithms used in contemporary NLP. In particular, we suggest that such an approach could be facilitated by recent developments in data-driven induction of typological knowledge.

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Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2019)
Rada Mihalcea | Ekaterina Shutova | Lun-Wei Ku | Kilian Evang | Soujanya Poria
Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2019)

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Deconstructing multimodality: visual properties and visual context in human semantic processing
Christopher Davis | Luana Bulat | Anita Lilla Vero | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the Eighth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2019)

Multimodal semantic models that extend linguistic representations with additional perceptual input have proved successful in a range of natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Recent research has successfully used neural methods to automatically create visual representations for words. However, these works have extracted visual features from complete images, and have not examined how different kinds of visual information impact performance. In contrast, we construct multimodal models that differentiate between internal visual properties of the objects and their external visual context. We evaluate the models on the task of decoding brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns, demonstrating their advantage over those based on complete images.

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Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation
Jonathan May | Ekaterina Shutova | Aurelie Herbelot | Xiaodan Zhu | Marianna Apidianaki | Saif M. Mohammad
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

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CAMsterdam at SemEval-2019 Task 6: Neural and graph-based feature extraction for the identification of offensive tweets
Guy Aglionby | Chris Davis | Pushkar Mishra | Andrew Caines | Helen Yannakoudakis | Marek Rei | Ekaterina Shutova | Paula Buttery
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

We describe the CAMsterdam team entry to the SemEval-2019 Shared Task 6 on offensive language identification in Twitter data. Our proposed model learns to extract textual features using a multi-layer recurrent network, and then performs text classification using gradient-boosted decision trees (GBDT). A self-attention architecture enables the model to focus on the most relevant areas in the text. In order to enrich input representations, we use node2vec to learn globally optimised embeddings for hashtags, which are then given as additional features to the GBDT classifier. Our best model obtains 78.79% macro F1-score on detecting offensive language (subtask A), 66.32% on categorising offence types (targeted/untargeted; subtask B), and 55.36% on identifying the target of offence (subtask C).

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Modeling Affirmative and Negated Action Processing in the Brain with Lexical and Compositional Semantic Models
Vesna Djokic | Jean Maillard | Luana Bulat | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recent work shows that distributional semantic models can be used to decode patterns of brain activity associated with individual words and sentence meanings. However, it is yet unclear to what extent such models can be used to study and decode fMRI patterns associated with specific aspects of semantic composition such as the negation function. In this paper, we apply lexical and compositional semantic models to decode fMRI patterns associated with negated and affirmative sentences containing hand-action verbs. Our results show reduced decoding (correlation) of sentences where the verb is in the negated context, as compared to the affirmative one, within brain regions implicated in action-semantic processing. This supports behavioral and brain imaging studies, suggesting that negation involves reduced access to aspects of the affirmative mental representation. The results pave the way for testing alternate semantic models of negation against human semantic processing in the brain.

2018

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Author Profiling for Abuse Detection
Pushkar Mishra | Marco Del Tredici | Helen Yannakoudakis | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The rapid growth of social media in recent years has fed into some highly undesirable phenomena such as proliferation of hateful and offensive language on the Internet. Previous research suggests that such abusive content tends to come from users who share a set of common stereotypes and form communities around them. The current state-of-the-art approaches to abuse detection are oblivious to user and community information and rely entirely on textual (i.e., lexical and semantic) cues. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to this problem that incorporates community-based profiling features of Twitter users. Experimenting with a dataset of 16k tweets, we show that our methods significantly outperform the current state of the art in abuse detection. Further, we conduct a qualitative analysis of model characteristics. We release our code, pre-trained models and all the resources used in the public domain.

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Proceedings of the Workshop on Figurative Language Processing
Beata Beigman Klebanov | Ekaterina Shutova | Patricia Lichtenstein | Smaranda Muresan | Chee Wee
Proceedings of the Workshop on Figurative Language Processing

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A Report on the 2018 VUA Metaphor Detection Shared Task
Chee Wee (Ben) Leong | Beata Beigman Klebanov | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the Workshop on Figurative Language Processing

As the community working on computational approaches to figurative language is growing and as methods and data become increasingly diverse, it is important to create widely shared empirical knowledge of the level of system performance in a range of contexts, thus facilitating progress in this area. One way of creating such shared knowledge is through benchmarking multiple systems on a common dataset. We report on the shared task on metaphor identification on the VU Amsterdam Metaphor Corpus conducted at the NAACL 2018 Workshop on Figurative Language Processing.

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Neural Character-based Composition Models for Abuse Detection
Pushkar Mishra | Helen Yannakoudakis | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Abusive Language Online (ALW2)

The advent of social media in recent years has fed into some highly undesirable phenomena such as proliferation of offensive language, hate speech, sexist remarks, etc. on the Internet. In light of this, there have been several efforts to automate the detection and moderation of such abusive content. However, deliberate obfuscation of words by users to evade detection poses a serious challenge to the effectiveness of these efforts. The current state of the art approaches to abusive language detection, based on recurrent neural networks, do not explicitly address this problem and resort to a generic OOV (out of vocabulary) embedding for unseen words. However, in using a single embedding for all unseen words we lose the ability to distinguish between obfuscated and non-obfuscated or rare words. In this paper, we address this problem by designing a model that can compose embeddings for unseen words. We experimentally demonstrate that our approach significantly advances the current state of the art in abuse detection on datasets from two different domains, namely Twitter and Wikipedia talk page.

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Proceedings of The 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation
Marianna Apidianaki | Saif M. Mohammad | Jonathan May | Ekaterina Shutova | Steven Bethard | Marine Carpuat
Proceedings of The 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

2017

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Multilingual Metaphor Processing: Experiments with Semi-Supervised and Unsupervised Learning
Ekaterina Shutova | Lin Sun | Elkin Darío Gutiérrez | Patricia Lichtenstein | Srini Narayanan
Computational Linguistics, Volume 43, Issue 1 - April 2017

Highly frequent in language and communication, metaphor represents a significant challenge for Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications. Computational work on metaphor has traditionally evolved around the use of hand-coded knowledge, making the systems hard to scale. Recent years have witnessed a rise in statistical approaches to metaphor processing. However, these approaches often require extensive human annotation effort and are predominantly evaluated within a limited domain. In contrast, we experiment with weakly supervised and unsupervised techniques—with little or no annotation—to generalize higher-level mechanisms of metaphor from distributional properties of concepts. We investigate different levels and types of supervision (learning from linguistic examples vs. learning from a given set of metaphorical mappings vs. learning without annotation) in flat and hierarchical, unconstrained and constrained clustering settings. Our aim is to identify the optimal type of supervision for a learning algorithm that discovers patterns of metaphorical association from text. In order to investigate the scalability and adaptability of our models, we applied them to data in three languages from different language groups—English, Spanish, and Russian—achieving state-of-the-art results with little supervision. Finally, we demonstrate that statistical methods can facilitate and scale up cross-linguistic research on metaphor.

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Modelling semantic acquisition in second language learning
Ekaterina Kochmar | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 12th Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications

Using methods of statistical analysis, we investigate how semantic knowledge is acquired in English as a second language and evaluate the pace of development across a number of predicate types and content word combinations, as well as across the levels of language proficiency and native languages. Our exploratory study helps identify the most problematic areas for language learners with different backgrounds and at different stages of learning.

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Semantic Frames and Visual Scenes: Learning Semantic Role Inventories from Image and Video Descriptions
Ekaterina Shutova | Andreas Wundsam | Helen Yannakoudakis
Proceedings of the 6th Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM 2017)

Frame-semantic parsing and semantic role labelling, that aim to automatically assign semantic roles to arguments of verbs in a sentence, have become an active strand of research in NLP. However, to date these methods have relied on a predefined inventory of semantic roles. In this paper, we present a method to automatically learn argument role inventories for verbs from large corpora of text, images and videos. We evaluate the method against manually constructed role inventories in FrameNet and show that the visual model outperforms the language-only model and operates with a high precision.

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Speaking, Seeing, Understanding: Correlating semantic models with conceptual representation in the brain
Luana Bulat | Stephen Clark | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Research in computational semantics is increasingly guided by our understanding of human semantic processing. However, semantic models are typically studied in the context of natural language processing system performance. In this paper, we present a systematic evaluation and comparison of a range of widely-used, state-of-the-art semantic models in their ability to predict patterns of conceptual representation in the human brain. Our results provide new insights both for the design of computational semantic models and for further research in cognitive neuroscience.

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Grasping the Finer Point: A Supervised Similarity Network for Metaphor Detection
Marek Rei | Luana Bulat | Douwe Kiela | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The ubiquity of metaphor in our everyday communication makes it an important problem for natural language understanding. Yet, the majority of metaphor processing systems to date rely on hand-engineered features and there is still no consensus in the field as to which features are optimal for this task. In this paper, we present the first deep learning architecture designed to capture metaphorical composition. Our results demonstrate that it outperforms the existing approaches in the metaphor identification task.

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Modelling metaphor with attribute-based semantics
Luana Bulat | Stephen Clark | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers

One of the key problems in computational metaphor modelling is finding the optimal level of abstraction of semantic representations, such that these are able to capture and generalise metaphorical mechanisms. In this paper we present the first metaphor identification method that uses representations constructed from property norms. Such norms have been previously shown to provide a cognitively plausible representation of concepts in terms of semantic properties. Our results demonstrate that such property-based semantic representations provide a suitable model of cross-domain knowledge projection in metaphors, outperforming standard distributional models on a metaphor identification task.

2016

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Literal and Metaphorical Senses in Compositional Distributional Semantic Models
E. Dario Gutiérrez | Ekaterina Shutova | Tyler Marghetis | Benjamin Bergen
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Cross-Lingual Lexico-Semantic Transfer in Language Learning
Ekaterina Kochmar | Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

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Semantic classifications for detection of verb metaphors
Beata Beigman Klebanov | Chee Wee Leong | E. Dario Gutierrez | Ekaterina Shutova | Michael Flor
Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

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Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Metaphor in NLP
Beata Beigman Klebanov | Ekaterina Shutova | Patricia Lichtenstein
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Metaphor in NLP

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Black Holes and White Rabbits: Metaphor Identification with Visual Features
Ekaterina Shutova | Douwe Kiela | Jean Maillard
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Detecting Cross-Cultural Differences Using a Multilingual Topic Model
E.D. Gutiérrez | Ekaterina Shutova | Patricia Lichtenstein | Gerard de Melo | Luca Gilardi
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 4

Understanding cross-cultural differences has important implications for world affairs and many aspects of the life of society. Yet, the majority of text-mining methods to date focus on the analysis of monolingual texts. In contrast, we present a statistical model that simultaneously learns a set of common topics from multilingual, non-parallel data and automatically discovers the differences in perspectives on these topics across linguistic communities. We perform a behavioural evaluation of a subset of the differences identified by our model in English and Spanish to investigate their psychological validity.

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Metaphor as a Medium for Emotion: An Empirical Study
Saif Mohammad | Ekaterina Shutova | Peter Turney
Proceedings of the Fifth Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics

2015

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Metaphor in NLP
Ekaterina Shutova | Beata Beigman Klebanov | Patricia Lichtenstein
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Metaphor in NLP

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Design and Evaluation of Metaphor Processing Systems
Ekaterina Shutova
Computational Linguistics, Volume 41, Issue 4 - December 2015

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SemEval-2015 Task 11: Sentiment Analysis of Figurative Language in Twitter
Aniruddha Ghosh | Guofu Li | Tony Veale | Paolo Rosso | Ekaterina Shutova | John Barnden | Antonio Reyes
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2015)

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Perceptually Grounded Selectional Preferences
Ekaterina Shutova | Niket Tandon | Gerard de Melo
Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2014

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Metaphor in NLP
Beata Beigman Klebanov | Ekaterina Shutova | Patricia Lichtenstein
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Metaphor in NLP

2013

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Unsupervised Metaphor Identification Using Hierarchical Graph Factorization Clustering
Ekaterina Shutova | Lin Sun
Proceedings of the 2013 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on Metaphor in NLP
Ekaterina Shutova | Beata Beigman Klebanov | Joel Tetreault | Zornitsa Kozareva
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Metaphor in NLP

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Statistical Metaphor Processing
Ekaterina Shutova | Simone Teufel | Anna Korhonen
Computational Linguistics, Volume 39, Issue 2 - June 2013

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Metaphor Identification as Interpretation
Ekaterina Shutova
Second Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics (*SEM), Volume 1: Proceedings of the Main Conference and the Shared Task: Semantic Textual Similarity

2012

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Unsupervised Metaphor Paraphrasing using a Vector Space Model
Ekaterina Shutova | Tim Van de Cruys | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of COLING 2012: Posters

2010

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Automatic Metaphor Interpretation as a Paraphrasing Task
Ekaterina Shutova
Human Language Technologies: The 2010 Annual Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Models of Metaphor in NLP
Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

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Metaphor Corpus Annotated for Source - Target Domain Mappings
Ekaterina Shutova | Simone Teufel
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

Besides making our thoughts more vivid and filling our communication with richer imagery, metaphor also plays an important structural role in our cognition. Although there is a consensus in the linguistics and NLP research communities that the phenomenon of metaphor is not restricted to similarity-based extensions of meanings of isolated words, but rather involves reconceptualization of a whole area of experience (target domain) in terms of another (source domain), there still has been no proposal for a comprehensive procedure for annotation of cross-domain mappings. However, a corpus annotated for conceptual mappings could provide a new starting point for both linguistic and cognitive experiments. The annotation scheme we present in this paper is a step towards filling this gap. We test our procedure in an experimental setting involving multiple annotators and estimate their agreement on the task. The associated corpus annotated for source ― target domain mappings will be publicly available.

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Metaphor Identification Using Verb and Noun Clustering
Ekaterina Shutova | Lin Sun | Anna Korhonen
Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Coling 2010)

2009

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Sense-based Interpretation of Logical Metonymy Using a Statistical Method
Ekaterina Shutova
Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009 Student Research Workshop