Elaine Zosa


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Grounded and well-rounded: a methodological approach to the study of cross-modal and cross-lingual grounding
Timothee Mickus | Elaine Zosa | Denis Paperno
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Grounding has been argued to be a crucial component towards the development of more complete and truly semantically competent artificial intelligence systems. Literature has divided into two camps: While some argue that grounding allows for qualitatively different generalizations, others believe it can be compensated by mono-modal data quantity. Limited empirical evidence has emerged for or against either position, which we argue is due to the methodological challenges that come with studying grounding and its effects on NLP systems. In this paper, we establish a methodological framework for studying what the effects are—if any—of providing models with richer input sources than text-only. The crux of it lies in the construction of comparable samples of populations of models trained on different input modalities, so that we can tease apart the qualitative effects of different input sources from quantifiable model performances. Experiments using this framework reveal qualitative differences in model behavior between cross-modally grounded, cross-lingually grounded, and ungrounded models, which we measure both at a global dataset level as well as for specific word representations, depending on how concrete their semantics is.


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Effectiveness of Data Augmentation and Pretraining for Improving Neural Headline Generation in Low-Resource Settings
Matej Martinc | Syrielle Montariol | Lidia Pivovarova | Elaine Zosa
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We tackle the problem of neural headline generation in a low-resource setting, where only limited amount of data is available to train a model. We compare the ideal high-resource scenario on English with results obtained on a smaller subset of the same data and also run experiments on two small news corpora covering low-resource languages, Croatian and Estonian. Two options for headline generation in a multilingual low-resource scenario are investigated: a pretrained multilingual encoder-decoder model and a combination of two pretrained language models, one used as an encoder and the other as a decoder, connected with a cross-attention layer that needs to be trained from scratch. The results show that the first approach outperforms the second one by a large margin. We explore several data augmentation and pretraining strategies in order to improve the performance of both models and show that while we can drastically improve the second approach using these strategies, they have little to no effect on the performance of the pretrained encoder-decoder model. Finally, we propose two new measures for evaluating the performance of the models besides the classic ROUGE scores.

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EMBEDDIA at SemEval-2022 Task 8: Investigating Sentence, Image, and Knowledge Graph Representations for Multilingual News Article Similarity
Elaine Zosa | Emanuela Boros | Boshko Koloski | Lidia Pivovarova
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

In this paper, we present the participation of the EMBEDDIA team in the SemEval-2022 Task 8 (Multilingual News Article Similarity). We cover several techniques and propose different methods for finding the multilingual news article similarity by exploring the dataset in its entirety. We take advantage of the textual content of the articles, the provided metadata (e.g., titles, keywords, topics), the translated articles, the images (those that were available), and knowledge graph-based representations for entities and relations present in the articles. We, then, compute the semantic similarity between the different features and predict through regression the similarity scores. Our findings show that, while our proposed methods obtained promising results, exploiting the semantic textual similarity with sentence representations is unbeatable. Finally, in the official SemEval-2022 Task 8, we ranked fifth in the overall team ranking cross-lingual results, and second in the English-only results.

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Multilingual and Multimodal Topic Modelling with Pretrained Embeddings
Elaine Zosa | Lidia Pivovarova
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

This paper presents M3L-Contrast—a novel multimodal multilingual (M3L) neural topic model for comparable data that maps texts from multiple languages and images into a shared topic space. Our model is trained jointly on texts and images and takes advantage of pretrained document and image embeddings to abstract the complexities between different languages and modalities. As a multilingual topic model, it produces aligned language-specific topics and as multimodal model, it infers textual representations of semantic concepts in images. We demonstrate that our model is competitive with a zero-shot topic model in predicting topic distributions for comparable multilingual data and significantly outperforms a zero-shot model in predicting topic distributions for comparable texts and images. We also show that our model performs almost as well on unaligned embeddings as it does on aligned embeddings.


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EMBEDDIA Tools, Datasets and Challenges: Resources and Hackathon Contributions
Senja Pollak | Marko Robnik-Šikonja | Matthew Purver | Michele Boggia | Ravi Shekhar | Marko Pranjić | Salla Salmela | Ivar Krustok | Tarmo Paju | Carl-Gustav Linden | Leo Leppänen | Elaine Zosa | Matej Ulčar | Linda Freienthal | Silver Traat | Luis Adrián Cabrera-Diego | Matej Martinc | Nada Lavrač | Blaž Škrlj | Martin Žnidaršič | Andraž Pelicon | Boshko Koloski | Vid Podpečan | Janez Kranjc | Shane Sheehan | Emanuela Boros | Jose G. Moreno | Antoine Doucet | Hannu Toivonen
Proceedings of the EACL Hackashop on News Media Content Analysis and Automated Report Generation

This paper presents tools and data sources collected and released by the EMBEDDIA project, supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program. The collected resources were offered to participants of a hackathon organized as part of the EACL Hackashop on News Media Content Analysis and Automated Report Generation in February 2021. The hackathon had six participating teams who addressed different challenges, either from the list of proposed challenges or their own news-industry-related tasks. This paper goes beyond the scope of the hackathon, as it brings together in a coherent and compact form most of the resources developed, collected and released by the EMBEDDIA project. Moreover, it constitutes a handy source for news media industry and researchers in the fields of Natural Language Processing and Social Science.

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Interesting cross-border news discovery using cross-lingual article linking and document similarity
Boshko Koloski | Elaine Zosa | Timen Stepišnik-Perdih | Blaž Škrlj | Tarmo Paju | Senja Pollak
Proceedings of the EACL Hackashop on News Media Content Analysis and Automated Report Generation

Team Name: team-8 Embeddia Tool: Cross-Lingual Document Retrieval Zosa et al. Dataset: Estonian and Latvian news datasets abstract: Contemporary news media face increasing amounts of available data that can be of use when prioritizing, selecting and discovering new news. In this work we propose a methodology for retrieving interesting articles in a cross-border news discovery setting. More specifically, we explore how a set of seed documents in Estonian can be projected in Latvian document space and serve as a basis for discovery of novel interesting pieces of Latvian news that would interest Estonian readers. The proposed methodology was evaluated by Estonian journalist who confirmed that in the best setting, from top 10 retrieved Latvian documents, half of them represent news that are potentially interesting to be taken by the Estonian media house and presented to Estonian readers.

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Not All Comments Are Equal: Insights into Comment Moderation from a Topic-Aware Model
Elaine Zosa | Ravi Shekhar | Mladen Karan | Matthew Purver
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2021)

Moderation of reader comments is a significant problem for online news platforms. Here, we experiment with models for automatic moderation, using a dataset of comments from a popular Croatian newspaper. Our analysis shows that while comments that violate the moderation rules mostly share common linguistic and thematic features, their content varies across the different sections of the newspaper. We therefore make our models topic-aware, incorporating semantic features from a topic model into the classification decision. Our results show that topic information improves the performance of the model, increases its confidence in correct outputs, and helps us understand the model’s outputs.


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A Comparison of Unsupervised Methods for Ad hoc Cross-Lingual Document Retrieval
Elaine Zosa | Mark Granroth-Wilding | Lidia Pivovarova
Proceedings of the workshop on Cross-Language Search and Summarization of Text and Speech (CLSSTS2020)

We address the problem of linking related documents across languages in a multilingual collection. We evaluate three diverse unsupervised methods to represent and compare documents: (1) multilingual topic model; (2) cross-lingual document embeddings; and (3) Wasserstein distance. We test the performance of these methods in retrieving news articles in Swedish that are known to be related to a given Finnish article. The results show that ensembles of the methods outperform the stand-alone methods, suggesting that they capture complementary characteristics of the documents

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Discovery Team at SemEval-2020 Task 1: Context-sensitive Embeddings Not Always Better than Static for Semantic Change Detection
Matej Martinc | Syrielle Montariol | Elaine Zosa | Lidia Pivovarova
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

This paper describes the approaches used by the Discovery Team to solve SemEval-2020 Task 1 - Unsupervised Lexical Semantic Change Detection. The proposed method is based on clustering of BERT contextual embeddings, followed by a comparison of cluster distributions across time. The best results were obtained by an ensemble of this method and static Word2Vec embeddings. According to the official results, our approach proved the best for Latin in Subtask 2.


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Word Clustering for Historical Newspapers Analysis
Lidia Pivovarova | Elaine Zosa | Jani Marjanen
Proceedings of the Workshop on Language Technology for Digital Historical Archives

This paper is a part of a collaboration between computer scientists and historians aimed at development of novel tools and methods to improve analysis of historical newspapers. We present a case study of ideological terms ending with -ism suffix in nineteenth century Finnish newspapers. We propose a two-step procedure to trace differences in word usages over time: training of diachronic embeddings on several time slices and when clustering embeddings of selected words together with their neighbours to obtain historical context. The obtained clusters turn out to be useful for historical studies. The paper also discuss specific difficulties related to development historian-oriented tools.

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Multilingual Dynamic Topic Model
Elaine Zosa | Mark Granroth-Wilding
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2019)

Dynamic topic models (DTMs) capture the evolution of topics and trends in time series data. Current DTMs are applicable only to monolingual datasets. In this paper we present the multilingual dynamic topic model (ML-DTM), a novel topic model that combines DTM with an existing multilingual topic modeling method to capture cross-lingual topics that evolve across time. We present results of this model on a parallel German-English corpus of news articles and a comparable corpus of Finnish and Swedish news articles. We demonstrate the capability of ML-DTM to track significant events related to a topic and show that it finds distinct topics and performs as well as existing multilingual topic models in aligning cross-lingual topics.