Elizabeth Belding


2020

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Towards Understanding Gender Bias in Relation Extraction
Andrew Gaut | Tony Sun | Shirlyn Tang | Yuxin Huang | Jing Qian | Mai ElSherief | Jieyu Zhao | Diba Mirza | Elizabeth Belding | Kai-Wei Chang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recent developments in Neural Relation Extraction (NRE) have made significant strides towards Automated Knowledge Base Construction. While much attention has been dedicated towards improvements in accuracy, there have been no attempts in the literature to evaluate social biases exhibited in NRE systems. In this paper, we create WikiGenderBias, a distantly supervised dataset composed of over 45,000 sentences including a 10% human annotated test set for the purpose of analyzing gender bias in relation extraction systems. We find that when extracting spouse-of and hypernym (i.e., occupation) relations, an NRE system performs differently when the gender of the target entity is different. However, such disparity does not appear when extracting relations such as birthDate or birthPlace. We also analyze how existing bias mitigation techniques, such as name anonymization, word embedding debiasing, and data augmentation affect the NRE system in terms of maintaining the test performance and reducing biases. Unfortunately, due to NRE models rely heavily on surface level cues, we find that existing bias mitigation approaches have a negative effect on NRE. Our analysis lays groundwork for future quantifying and mitigating bias in NRE.

2019

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Learning to Decipher Hate Symbols
Jing Qian | Mai ElSherief | Elizabeth Belding | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Existing computational models to understand hate speech typically frame the problem as a simple classification task, bypassing the understanding of hate symbols (e.g., 14 words, kigy) and their secret connotations. In this paper, we propose a novel task of deciphering hate symbols. To do this, we leveraged the Urban Dictionary and collected a new, symbol-rich Twitter corpus of hate speech. We investigate neural network latent context models for deciphering hate symbols. More specifically, we study Sequence-to-Sequence models and show how they are able to crack the ciphers based on context. Furthermore, we propose a novel Variational Decipher and show how it can generalize better to unseen hate symbols in a more challenging testing setting.

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A Benchmark Dataset for Learning to Intervene in Online Hate Speech
Jing Qian | Anna Bethke | Yinyin Liu | Elizabeth Belding | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Countering online hate speech is a critical yet challenging task, but one which can be aided by the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. Previous research has primarily focused on the development of NLP methods to automatically and effectively detect online hate speech while disregarding further action needed to calm and discourage individuals from using hate speech in the future. In addition, most existing hate speech datasets treat each post as an isolated instance, ignoring the conversational context. In this paper, we propose a novel task of generative hate speech intervention, where the goal is to automatically generate responses to intervene during online conversations that contain hate speech. As a part of this work, we introduce two fully-labeled large-scale hate speech intervention datasets collected from Gab and Reddit. These datasets provide conversation segments, hate speech labels, as well as intervention responses written by Mechanical Turk Workers. In this paper, we also analyze the datasets to understand the common intervention strategies and explore the performance of common automatic response generation methods on these new datasets to provide a benchmark for future research.

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Mitigating Gender Bias in Natural Language Processing: Literature Review
Tony Sun | Andrew Gaut | Shirlyn Tang | Yuxin Huang | Mai ElSherief | Jieyu Zhao | Diba Mirza | Elizabeth Belding | Kai-Wei Chang | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

As Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Machine Learning (ML) tools rise in popularity, it becomes increasingly vital to recognize the role they play in shaping societal biases and stereotypes. Although NLP models have shown success in modeling various applications, they propagate and may even amplify gender bias found in text corpora. While the study of bias in artificial intelligence is not new, methods to mitigate gender bias in NLP are relatively nascent. In this paper, we review contemporary studies on recognizing and mitigating gender bias in NLP. We discuss gender bias based on four forms of representation bias and analyze methods recognizing gender bias. Furthermore, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of existing gender debiasing methods. Finally, we discuss future studies for recognizing and mitigating gender bias in NLP.

2018

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Hierarchical CVAE for Fine-Grained Hate Speech Classification
Jing Qian | Mai ElSherief | Elizabeth Belding | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Existing work on automated hate speech detection typically focuses on binary classification or on differentiating among a small set of categories. In this paper, we propose a novel method on a fine-grained hate speech classification task, which focuses on differentiating among 40 hate groups of 13 different hate group categories. We first explore the Conditional Variational Autoencoder (CVAE) as a discriminative model and then extend it to a hierarchical architecture to utilize the additional hate category information for more accurate prediction. Experimentally, we show that incorporating the hate category information for training can significantly improve the classification performance and our proposed model outperforms commonly-used discriminative models.

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Leveraging Intra-User and Inter-User Representation Learning for Automated Hate Speech Detection
Jing Qian | Mai ElSherief | Elizabeth Belding | William Yang Wang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Hate speech detection is a critical, yet challenging problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Despite the existence of numerous studies dedicated to the development of NLP hate speech detection approaches, the accuracy is still poor. The central problem is that social media posts are short and noisy, and most existing hate speech detection solutions take each post as an isolated input instance, which is likely to yield high false positive and negative rates. In this paper, we radically improve automated hate speech detection by presenting a novel model that leverages intra-user and inter-user representation learning for robust hate speech detection on Twitter. In addition to the target Tweet, we collect and analyze the user’s historical posts to model intra-user Tweet representations. To suppress the noise in a single Tweet, we also model the similar Tweets posted by all other users with reinforced inter-user representation learning techniques. Experimentally, we show that leveraging these two representations can significantly improve the f-score of a strong bidirectional LSTM baseline model by 10.1%.