Ella Neeman


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DisentQA: Disentangling Parametric and Contextual Knowledge with Counterfactual Question Answering
Ella Neeman | Roee Aharoni | Or Honovich | Leshem Choshen | Idan Szpektor | Omri Abend
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Question answering models commonly have access to two sources of “knowledge” during inference time: (1) parametric knowledge - the factual knowledge encoded in the model weights, and (2) contextual knowledge - external knowledge (e.g., a Wikipedia passage) given to the model to generate a grounded answer. Having these two sources of knowledge entangled together is a core issue for generative QA models as it is unclear whether the answer stems from the given non-parametric knowledge or not. This unclarity has implications on issues of trust, interpretability and factuality. In this work, we propose a new paradigm in which QA models are trained to disentangle the two sources of knowledge. Using counterfactual data augmentation, we introduce a model that predicts two answers for a given question: one based on given contextual knowledge and one based on parametric knowledge. Our experiments on the Natural Questions dataset show that this approach improves the performance of QA models by making them more robust to knowledge conflicts between the two knowledge sources, while generating useful disentangled answers.


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Q2: Evaluating Factual Consistency in Knowledge-Grounded Dialogues via Question Generation and Question Answering
Or Honovich | Leshem Choshen | Roee Aharoni | Ella Neeman | Idan Szpektor | Omri Abend
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Neural knowledge-grounded generative models for dialogue often produce content that is factually inconsistent with the knowledge they rely on, making them unreliable and limiting their applicability. Inspired by recent work on evaluating factual consistency in abstractive summarization, we propose an automatic evaluation metric for factual consistency in knowledge-grounded dialogue using automatic question generation and question answering. Our metric, denoted Q2, compares answer spans using natural language inference (NLI), instead of token-based matching as done in previous work. To foster proper evaluation, we curate a novel dataset of dialogue system outputs for the Wizard-of-Wikipedia dataset, manually annotated for factual consistency. We perform a thorough meta-evaluation of Q2 against other metrics using this dataset and two others, where it consistently shows higher correlation with human judgements.