Emanuele Bugliarello


2021

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Vision-and-Language or Vision-for-Language? On Cross-Modal Influence in Multimodal Transformers
Stella Frank | Emanuele Bugliarello | Desmond Elliott
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Pretrained vision-and-language BERTs aim to learn representations that combine information from both modalities. We propose a diagnostic method based on cross-modal input ablation to assess the extent to which these models actually integrate cross-modal information. This method involves ablating inputs from one modality, either entirely or selectively based on cross-modal grounding alignments, and evaluating the model prediction performance on the other modality. Model performance is measured by modality-specific tasks that mirror the model pretraining objectives (e.g. masked language modelling for text). Models that have learned to construct cross-modal representations using both modalities are expected to perform worse when inputs are missing from a modality. We find that recently proposed models have much greater relative difficulty predicting text when visual information is ablated, compared to predicting visual object categories when text is ablated, indicating that these models are not symmetrically cross-modal.

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Visually Grounded Reasoning across Languages and Cultures
Fangyu Liu | Emanuele Bugliarello | Edoardo Maria Ponti | Siva Reddy | Nigel Collier | Desmond Elliott
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

The design of widespread vision-and-language datasets and pre-trained encoders directly adopts, or draws inspiration from, the concepts and images of ImageNet. While one can hardly overestimate how much this benchmark contributed to progress in computer vision, it is mostly derived from lexical databases and image queries in English, resulting in source material with a North American or Western European bias. Therefore, we devise a new protocol to construct an ImageNet-style hierarchy representative of more languages and cultures. In particular, we let the selection of both concepts and images be entirely driven by native speakers, rather than scraping them automatically. Specifically, we focus on a typologically diverse set of languages, namely, Indonesian, Mandarin Chinese, Swahili, Tamil, and Turkish. On top of the concepts and images obtained through this new protocol, we create a multilingual dataset for Multicultural Reasoning over Vision and Language (MaRVL) by eliciting statements from native speaker annotators about pairs of images. The task consists of discriminating whether each grounded statement is true or false. We establish a series of baselines using state-of-the-art models and find that their cross-lingual transfer performance lags dramatically behind supervised performance in English. These results invite us to reassess the robustness and accuracy of current state-of-the-art models beyond a narrow domain, but also open up new exciting challenges for the development of truly multilingual and multicultural systems.

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The Role of Syntactic Planning in Compositional Image Captioning
Emanuele Bugliarello | Desmond Elliott
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

Image captioning has focused on generalizing to images drawn from the same distribution as the training set, and not to the more challenging problem of generalizing to different distributions of images. Recently, Nikolaus et al. (2019) introduced a dataset to assess compositional generalization in image captioning, where models are evaluated on their ability to describe images with unseen adjective–noun and noun–verb compositions. In this work, we investigate different methods to improve compositional generalization by planning the syntactic structure of a caption. Our experiments show that jointly modeling tokens and syntactic tags enhances generalization in both RNN- and Transformer-based models, while also improving performance on standard metrics.

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On Language Models for Creoles
Heather Lent | Emanuele Bugliarello | Miryam de Lhoneux | Chen Qiu | Anders Søgaard
Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

Creole languages such as Nigerian Pidgin English and Haitian Creole are under-resourced and largely ignored in the NLP literature. Creoles typically result from the fusion of a foreign language with multiple local languages, and what grammatical and lexical features are transferred to the creole is a complex process. While creoles are generally stable, the prominence of some features may be much stronger with certain demographics or in some linguistic situations. This paper makes several contributions: We collect existing corpora and release models for Haitian Creole, Nigerian Pidgin English, and Singaporean Colloquial English. We evaluate these models on intrinsic and extrinsic tasks. Motivated by the above literature, we compare standard language models with distributionally robust ones and find that, somewhat surprisingly, the standard language models are superior to the distributionally robust ones. We investigate whether this is an effect of over-parameterization or relative distributional stability, and find that the difference persists in the absence of over-parameterization, and that drift is limited, confirming the relative stability of creole languages.

2020

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Enhancing Machine Translation with Dependency-Aware Self-Attention
Emanuele Bugliarello | Naoaki Okazaki
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Most neural machine translation models only rely on pairs of parallel sentences, assuming syntactic information is automatically learned by an attention mechanism. In this work, we investigate different approaches to incorporate syntactic knowledge in the Transformer model and also propose a novel, parameter-free, dependency-aware self-attention mechanism that improves its translation quality, especially for long sentences and in low-resource scenarios. We show the efficacy of each approach on WMT English-German and English-Turkish, and WAT English-Japanese translation tasks.

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It’s Easier to Translate out of English than into it: Measuring Neural Translation Difficulty by Cross-Mutual Information
Emanuele Bugliarello | Sabrina J. Mielke | Antonios Anastasopoulos | Ryan Cotterell | Naoaki Okazaki
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

The performance of neural machine translation systems is commonly evaluated in terms of BLEU. However, due to its reliance on target language properties and generation, the BLEU metric does not allow an assessment of which translation directions are more difficult to model. In this paper, we propose cross-mutual information (XMI): an asymmetric information-theoretic metric of machine translation difficulty that exploits the probabilistic nature of most neural machine translation models. XMI allows us to better evaluate the difficulty of translating text into the target language while controlling for the difficulty of the target-side generation component independent of the translation task. We then present the first systematic and controlled study of cross-lingual translation difficulties using modern neural translation systems. Code for replicating our experiments is available online at https://github.com/e-bug/nmt-difficulty.