Emma Manning


pdf bib
Referenceless Parsing-Based Evaluation of AMR-to-English Generation
Emma Manning | Nathan Schneider
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Evaluation and Comparison of NLP Systems

Reference-based automatic evaluation metrics are notoriously limited for NLG due to their inability to fully capture the range of possible outputs. We examine a referenceless alternative: evaluating the adequacy of English sentences generated from Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) graphs by parsing into AMR and comparing the parse directly to the input. We find that the errors introduced by automatic AMR parsing substantially limit the effectiveness of this approach, but a manual editing study indicates that as parsing improves, parsing-based evaluation has the potential to outperform most reference-based metrics.

pdf bib
Underreporting of errors in NLG output, and what to do about it
Emiel van Miltenburg | Miruna Clinciu | Ondřej Dušek | Dimitra Gkatzia | Stephanie Inglis | Leo Leppänen | Saad Mahamood | Emma Manning | Stephanie Schoch | Craig Thomson | Luou Wen
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

We observe a severe under-reporting of the different kinds of errors that Natural Language Generation systems make. This is a problem, because mistakes are an important indicator of where systems should still be improved. If authors only report overall performance metrics, the research community is left in the dark about the specific weaknesses that are exhibited by ‘state-of-the-art’ research. Next to quantifying the extent of error under-reporting, this position paper provides recommendations for error identification, analysis and reporting.

pdf bib
A Balanced and Broadly Targeted Computational Linguistics Curriculum
Emma Manning | Nathan Schneider | Amir Zeldes
Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Teaching NLP

This paper describes the primarily-graduate computational linguistics and NLP curriculum at Georgetown University, a U.S. university that has seen significant growth in these areas in recent years. We reflect on the principles behind our curriculum choices, including recognizing the various academic backgrounds and goals of our students; teaching a variety of skills with an emphasis on working directly with data; encouraging collaboration and interdisciplinary work; and including languages beyond English. We reflect on challenges we have encountered, such as the difficulty of teaching programming skills alongside NLP fundamentals, and discuss areas for future growth.


pdf bib
PASTRIE: A Corpus of Prepositions Annotated with Supersense Tags in Reddit International English
Michael Kranzlein | Emma Manning | Siyao Peng | Shira Wein | Aryaman Arora | Nathan Schneider
Proceedings of the 14th Linguistic Annotation Workshop

We present the Prepositions Annotated with Supsersense Tags in Reddit International English (“PASTRIE”) corpus, a new dataset containing manually annotated preposition supersenses of English data from presumed speakers of four L1s: English, French, German, and Spanish. The annotations are comprehensive, covering all preposition types and tokens in the sample. Along with the corpus, we provide analysis of distributional patterns across the included L1s and a discussion of the influence of L1s on L2 preposition choice.

pdf bib
A Human Evaluation of AMR-to-English Generation Systems
Emma Manning | Shira Wein | Nathan Schneider
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Most current state-of-the art systems for generating English text from Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) have been evaluated only using automated metrics, such as BLEU, which are known to be problematic for natural language generation. In this work, we present the results of a new human evaluation which collects fluency and adequacy scores, as well as categorization of error types, for several recent AMR generation systems. We discuss the relative quality of these systems and how our results compare to those of automatic metrics, finding that while the metrics are mostly successful in ranking systems overall, collecting human judgments allows for more nuanced comparisons. We also analyze common errors made by these systems.


pdf bib
A Partially Rule-Based Approach to AMR Generation
Emma Manning
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

This paper presents a new approach to generating English text from Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR). In contrast to the neural and statistical MT approaches used in other AMR generation systems, this one is largely rule-based, supplemented only by a language model and simple statistical linearization models, allowing for more control over the output. We also address the difficulties of automatically evaluating AMR generation systems and the problems with BLEU for this task. We compare automatic metrics to human evaluations and show that while METEOR and TER arguably reflect human judgments better than BLEU, further research into suitable evaluation metrics is needed.


pdf bib
A Linked Coptic Dictionary Online
Frank Feder | Maxim Kupreyev | Emma Manning | Caroline T. Schroeder | Amir Zeldes
Proceedings of the Second Joint SIGHUM Workshop on Computational Linguistics for Cultural Heritage, Social Sciences, Humanities and Literature

We describe a new project publishing a freely available online dictionary for Coptic. The dictionary encompasses comprehensive cross-referencing mechanisms, including linking entries to an online scanned edition of Crum’s Coptic Dictionary, internal cross-references and etymological information, translated searchable definitions in English, French and German, and linked corpus data which provides frequencies and corpus look-up for headwords and multiword expressions. Headwords are available for linking in external projects using a REST API. We describe the challenges in encoding our dictionary using TEI XML and implementing linking mechanisms to construct a Web interface querying frequency information, which draw on NLP tools to recognize inflected forms in context. We evaluate our dictionary’s coverage using digital corpora of Coptic available online.