Recent works in cyber deception study how to deter malicious intrusion by generating multiple fake versions of a critical document to impose costs on adversaries who need to identify the correct information. However, existing approaches are context-agnostic, resulting in sub-optimal and unvaried outputs. We propose a novel context-aware model, Fake Document Infilling (FDI), by converting the problem to a controllable mask-then-infill procedure. FDI masks important concepts of varied lengths in the document, then infills a realistic but fake alternative considering both the previous and future contexts. We conduct comprehensive evaluations on technical documents and news stories. Results show that FDI outperforms the baselines in generating highly believable fakes with moderate modification to protect critical information and deceive adversaries.
Analyzing conflicts and political violence around the world is a persistent challenge in the political science and policy communities due in large part to the vast volumes of specialized text needed to monitor conflict and violence on a global scale. To help advance research in political science, we introduce ConfliBERT, a domain-specific pre-trained language model for conflict and political violence. We first gather a large domain-specific text corpus for language modeling from various sources. We then build ConfliBERT using two approaches: pre-training from scratch and continual pre-training. To evaluate ConfliBERT, we collect 12 datasets and implement 18 tasks to assess the models’ practical application in conflict research. Finally, we evaluate several versions of ConfliBERT in multiple experiments. Results consistently show that ConfliBERT outperforms BERT when analyzing political violence and conflict.