Erik Cambria


2023

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TECHS: Temporal Logical Graph Networks for Explainable Extrapolation Reasoning
Qika Lin | Jun Liu | Rui Mao | Fangzhi Xu | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Extrapolation reasoning on temporal knowledge graphs (TKGs) aims to forecast future facts based on past counterparts. There are two main challenges: (1) incorporating the complex information, including structural dependencies, temporal dynamics, and hidden logical rules; (2) implementing differentiable logical rule learning and reasoning for explainability. To this end, we propose an explainable extrapolation reasoning framework TEemporal logiCal grapH networkS (TECHS), which mainly contains a temporal graph encoder and a logical decoder. The former employs a graph convolutional network with temporal encoding and heterogeneous attention to embed topological structures and temporal dynamics. The latter integrates propositional reasoning and first-order reasoning by introducing a reasoning graph that iteratively expands to find the answer. A forward message-passing mechanism is also proposed to update node representations, and their propositional and first-order attention scores. Experimental results demonstrate that it outperforms state-of-the-art baselines.

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Improving Self-training for Cross-lingual Named Entity Recognition with Contrastive and Prototype Learning
Ran Zhou | Xin Li | Lidong Bing | Erik Cambria | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In cross-lingual named entity recognition (NER), self-training is commonly used to bridge the linguistic gap by training on pseudo-labeled target-language data. However, due to sub-optimal performance on target languages, the pseudo labels are often noisy and limit the overall performance. In this work, we aim to improve self-training for cross-lingual NER by combining representation learning and pseudo label refinement in one coherent framework. Our proposed method, namely ContProto mainly comprises two components: (1) contrastive self-training and (2) prototype-based pseudo-labeling. Our contrastive self-training facilitates span classification by separating clusters of different classes, and enhances cross-lingual transferability by producing closely-aligned representations between the source and target language. Meanwhile, prototype-based pseudo-labeling effectively improves the accuracy of pseudo labels during training. We evaluate ContProto on multiple transfer pairs, and experimental results show our method brings substantial improvements over current state-of-the-art methods.

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PAED: Zero-Shot Persona Attribute Extraction in Dialogues
Luyao Zhu | Wei Li | Rui Mao | Vlad Pandelea | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Persona attribute extraction is critical for personalized human-computer interaction. Dialogue is an important medium that communicates and delivers persona information. Although there is a public dataset for triplet-based persona attribute extraction from conversations, its automatically generated labels present many issues, including unspecific relations and inconsistent annotations. We fix such issues by leveraging more reliable text-label matching criteria to generate high-quality data for persona attribute extraction. We also propose a contrastive learning- and generation-based model with a novel hard negative sampling strategy for generalized zero-shot persona attribute extraction. We benchmark our model with state-of-the-art baselines on our dataset and a public dataset, showing outstanding accuracy gains. Our sampling strategy also exceeds others by a large margin in persona attribute extraction.

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Finding the Pillars of Strength for Multi-Head Attention
Jinjie Ni | Rui Mao | Zonglin Yang | Han Lei | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent studies have revealed some issues of Multi-Head Attention (MHA), e.g., redundancy and over-parameterization. Specifically, the heads of MHA were originally designed to attend to information from different representation subspaces, whereas prior studies found that some attention heads likely learn similar features and can be pruned without harming performance. Inspired by the minimum-redundancy feature selection, we assume that focusing on the most representative and distinctive features with minimum resources can mitigate the above issues and lead to more effective and efficient MHAs. In particular, we propose Grouped Head Attention, trained with a self-supervised group constraint that group attention heads, where each group focuses on an essential but distinctive feature subset. We additionally propose a Voting-to-Stay procedure to remove redundant heads, thus achieving a transformer with lighter weights. Extensive experiments are consistent with our hypothesis. Moreover, our method achieves significant performance gains on three well-established tasks while considerably compressing parameters.

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MetaPro Online: A Computational Metaphor Processing Online System
Rui Mao | Xiao Li | Kai He | Mengshi Ge | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 3: System Demonstrations)

Metaphoric expressions are a special linguistic phenomenon, frequently appearing in everyday language. Metaphors do not take their literal meanings in contexts, which may cause obstacles for language learners to understand them. Metaphoric expressions also reflect the cognition of humans via concept mappings, attracting great attention from cognitive science and psychology communities. Thus, we aim to develop a computational metaphor processing online system, termed MetaPro Online, that allows users without a coding background, e.g., language learners and linguists, to easily query metaphoricity labels, metaphor paraphrases, and concept mappings for non-domain-specific text. The outputs of MetaPro can be directly used by language learners and natural language processing downstream tasks because MetaPro is an end-to-end system.

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Neuro-Symbolic Sentiment Analysis with Dynamic Word Sense Disambiguation
Xulang Zhang | Rui Mao | Kai He | Erik Cambria
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Sentiment analysis is a task that highly depends on the understanding of word senses. Traditional neural network models are black boxes that represent word senses as vectors that are uninterpretable for humans. On the other hand, the application of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) systems in downstream tasks poses challenges regarding i) which words need to be disambiguated, and ii) how to model explicit word senses into easily understandable terms for a downstream model. This work proposes a neurosymbolic framework that incorporates WSD by identifying and paraphrasing ambiguous words to improve the accuracy of sentiment predictions. The framework allows us to understand which words are paraphrased into which semantically unequivocal words, thus enabling a downstream task model to gain both accuracy and interpretability. To better fine-tune a lexical substitution model for WSD on a downstream task without ground-truth word sense labels, we leverage dynamic rewarding to jointly train sentiment analysis and lexical substitution models. Our framework proves to effectively improve the performance of sentiment analysis on corpora from different domains.

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Task-Aware Self-Supervised Framework for Dialogue Discourse Parsing
Wei Li | Luyao Zhu | Wei Shao | Zonglin Yang | Erik Cambria
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Dialogue discourse parsing is a fundamental natural language processing task. It can benefit a series of conversation-related downstream tasks including dialogue summarization and emotion recognition in conversations. However, existing parsing approaches are constrained by predefined relation types, which can impede the adaptability of the parser for downstream tasks. To this end, we propose to introduce a task-aware paradigm to improve the versatility of the parser in this paper. Moreover, to alleviate error propagation and learning bias, we design a graph-based discourse parsing model termed DialogDP. Building upon the symmetrical property of matrix-embedded parsing graphs, we have developed an innovative self-supervised mechanism that leverages both bottom-up and top-down parsing strategies. This approach allows the parsing graphs to mutually regularize and enhance each other. Empirical studies on dialogue discourse parsing datasets and a downstream task demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of our framework.

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End-to-end Case-Based Reasoning for Commonsense Knowledge Base Completion
Zonglin Yang | Xinya Du | Erik Cambria | Claire Cardie
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Pretrained language models have been shown to store knowledge in their parameters and have achieved reasonable performance in commonsense knowledge base completion (CKBC) tasks. However, CKBC is knowledge-intensive and it is reported that pretrained language models’ performance in knowledge-intensive tasks are limited because of their incapability of accessing and manipulating knowledge. As a result, we hypothesize that providing retrieved passages that contain relevant knowledge as additional input to the CKBC task will improve performance. In particular, we draw insights from Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) – which aims to solve a new problem by reasoning with retrieved relevant cases, and investigate the direct application of it to CKBC. On two benchmark datasets, we demonstrate through automatic and human evaluations that our End-to-end Case-Based Reasoning Framework (ECBRF) generates more valid, informative, and novel knowledge than the state-of-the-art COMET model for CKBC in both the fully supervised and few-shot settings. We provide insights on why previous retrieval-based methods only achieve merely the same performance with COMET. From the perspective of CBR, our framework addresses a fundamental question on whether CBR methodology can be utilized to improve deep learning models.

2022

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Hierarchical Attention Network for Explainable Depression Detection on Twitter Aided by Metaphor Concept Mappings
Sooji Han | Rui Mao | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Automatic depression detection on Twitter can help individuals privately and conveniently understand their mental health status in the early stages before seeing mental health professionals. Most existing black-box-like deep learning methods for depression detection largely focused on improving classification performance. However, explaining model decisions is imperative in health research because decision-making can often be high-stakes and life-and-death. Reliable automatic diagnosis of mental health problems including depression should be supported by credible explanations justifying models’ predictions. In this work, we propose a novel explainable model for depression detection on Twitter. It comprises a novel encoder combining hierarchical attention mechanisms and feed-forward neural networks. To support psycholinguistic studies, our model leverages metaphorical concept mappings as input. Thus, it not only detects depressed individuals, but also identifies features of such users’ tweets and associated metaphor concept mappings.

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MELM: Data Augmentation with Masked Entity Language Modeling for Low-Resource NER
Ran Zhou | Xin Li | Ruidan He | Lidong Bing | Erik Cambria | Luo Si | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Data augmentation is an effective solution to data scarcity in low-resource scenarios. However, when applied to token-level tasks such as NER, data augmentation methods often suffer from token-label misalignment, which leads to unsatsifactory performance. In this work, we propose Masked Entity Language Modeling (MELM) as a novel data augmentation framework for low-resource NER. To alleviate the token-label misalignment issue, we explicitly inject NER labels into sentence context, and thus the fine-tuned MELM is able to predict masked entity tokens by explicitly conditioning on their labels. Thereby, MELM generates high-quality augmented data with novel entities, which provides rich entity regularity knowledge and boosts NER performance. When training data from multiple languages are available, we also integrate MELM with code-mixing for further improvement. We demonstrate the effectiveness of MELM on monolingual, cross-lingual and multilingual NER across various low-resource levels. Experimental results show that our MELM consistently outperforms the baseline methods.

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ConNER: Consistency Training for Cross-lingual Named Entity Recognition
Ran Zhou | Xin Li | Lidong Bing | Erik Cambria | Luo Si | Chunyan Miao
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Cross-lingual named entity recognition (NER) suffers from data scarcity in the target languages, especially under zero-shot settings. Existing translate-train or knowledge distillation methods attempt to bridge the language gap, but often introduce a high level of noise. To solve this problem, consistency training methods regularize the model to be robust towards perturbations on data or hidden states. However, such methods are likely to violate the consistency hypothesis, or mainly focus on coarse-grain consistency. We propose ConNER as a novel consistency training framework for cross-lingual NER, which comprises of: (1) translation-based consistency training on unlabeled target-language data, and (2) dropout-based consistency training on labeled source-language data. ConNER effectively leverages unlabeled target-language data and alleviates overfitting on the source language to enhance the cross-lingual adaptability. Experimental results show our ConNER achieves consistent improvement over various baseline methods.

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SenticNet 7: A Commonsense-based Neurosymbolic AI Framework for Explainable Sentiment Analysis
Erik Cambria | Qian Liu | Sergio Decherchi | Frank Xing | Kenneth Kwok
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In recent years, AI research has demonstrated enormous potential for the benefit of humanity and society. While often better than its human counterparts in classification and pattern recognition tasks, however, AI still struggles with complex tasks that require commonsense reasoning such as natural language understanding. In this context, the key limitations of current AI models are: dependency, reproducibility, trustworthiness, interpretability, and explainability. In this work, we propose a commonsense-based neurosymbolic framework that aims to overcome these issues in the context of sentiment analysis. In particular, we employ unsupervised and reproducible subsymbolic techniques such as auto-regressive language models and kernel methods to build trustworthy symbolic representations that convert natural language to a sort of protolanguage and, hence, extract polarity from text in a completely interpretable and explainable manner.

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MentalBERT: Publicly Available Pretrained Language Models for Mental Healthcare
Shaoxiong Ji | Tianlin Zhang | Luna Ansari | Jie Fu | Prayag Tiwari | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Mental health is a critical issue in modern society, and mental disorders could sometimes turn to suicidal ideation without adequate treatment. Early detection of mental disorders and suicidal ideation from social content provides a potential way for effective social intervention. Recent advances in pretrained contextualized language representations have promoted the development of several domainspecific pretrained models and facilitated several downstream applications. However, there are no existing pretrained language models for mental healthcare. This paper trains and release two pretrained masked language models, i.e., MentalBERT and MentalRoBERTa, to benefit machine learning for the mental healthcare research community. Besides, we evaluate our trained domain-specific models and several variants of pretrained language models on several mental disorder detection benchmarks and demonstrate that language representations pretrained in the target domain improve the performance of mental health detection tasks.

2021

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Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Multimodal Artificial Intelligence
Amir Zadeh | Louis-Philippe Morency | Paul Pu Liang | Candace Ross | Ruslan Salakhutdinov | Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Kelly Shi
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Multimodal Artificial Intelligence

2020

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JUSTers at SemEval-2020 Task 4: Evaluating Transformer Models against Commonsense Validation and Explanation
Ali Fadel | Mahmoud Al-Ayyoub | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

In this paper, we describe our team’s (JUSTers) effort in the Commonsense Validation and Explanation (ComVE) task, which is part of SemEval2020. We evaluate five pre-trained Transformer-based language models with various sizes against the three proposed subtasks. For the first two subtasks, the best accuracy levels achieved by our models are 92.90% and 92.30%, respectively, placing our team in the 12th and 9th places, respectively. As for the last subtask, our models reach 16.10 BLEU score and 1.94 human evaluation score placing our team in the 5th and 3rd places according to these two metrics, respectively. The latter is only 0.16 away from the 1st place human evaluation score.

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Financial Sentiment Analysis: An Investigation into Common Mistakes and Silver Bullets
Frank Xing | Lorenzo Malandri | Yue Zhang | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The recent dominance of machine learning-based natural language processing methods has fostered the culture of overemphasizing model accuracies rather than studying the reasons behind their errors. Interpretability, however, is a critical requirement for many downstream AI and NLP applications, e.g., in finance, healthcare, and autonomous driving. This study, instead of proposing any “new model”, investigates the error patterns of some widely acknowledged sentiment analysis methods in the finance domain. We discover that (1) those methods belonging to the same clusters are prone to similar error patterns, and (2) there are six types of linguistic features that are pervasive in the common errors. These findings provide important clues and practical considerations for improving sentiment analysis models for financial applications.

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Dilated Convolutional Attention Network for Medical Code Assignment from Clinical Text
Shaoxiong Ji | Erik Cambria | Pekka Marttinen
Proceedings of the 3rd Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop

Medical code assignment, which predicts medical codes from clinical texts, is a fundamental task of intelligent medical information systems. The emergence of deep models in natural language processing has boosted the development of automatic assignment methods. However, recent advanced neural architectures with flat convolutions or multi-channel feature concatenation ignore the sequential causal constraint within a text sequence and may not learn meaningful clinical text representations, especially for lengthy clinical notes with long-term sequential dependency. This paper proposes a Dilated Convolutional Attention Network (DCAN), integrating dilated convolutions, residual connections, and label attention, for medical code assignment. It adopts dilated convolutions to capture complex medical patterns with a receptive field which increases exponentially with dilation size. Experiments on a real-world clinical dataset empirically show that our model improves the state of the art.

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Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Natural Language Processing Beyond Text
Giuseppe Castellucci | Simone Filice | Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Lucia Specia
Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Natural Language Processing Beyond Text

2019

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MELD: A Multimodal Multi-Party Dataset for Emotion Recognition in Conversations
Soujanya Poria | Devamanyu Hazarika | Navonil Majumder | Gautam Naik | Erik Cambria | Rada Mihalcea
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Emotion recognition in conversations is a challenging task that has recently gained popularity due to its potential applications. Until now, however, a large-scale multimodal multi-party emotional conversational database containing more than two speakers per dialogue was missing. Thus, we propose the Multimodal EmotionLines Dataset (MELD), an extension and enhancement of EmotionLines. MELD contains about 13,000 utterances from 1,433 dialogues from the TV-series Friends. Each utterance is annotated with emotion and sentiment labels, and encompasses audio, visual and textual modalities. We propose several strong multimodal baselines and show the importance of contextual and multimodal information for emotion recognition in conversations. The full dataset is available for use at http://affective-meld.github.io.

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Towards Scalable and Reliable Capsule Networks for Challenging NLP Applications
Wei Zhao | Haiyun Peng | Steffen Eger | Erik Cambria | Min Yang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Obstacles hindering the development of capsule networks for challenging NLP applications include poor scalability to large output spaces and less reliable routing processes. In this paper, we introduce: (i) an agreement score to evaluate the performance of routing processes at instance-level; (ii) an adaptive optimizer to enhance the reliability of routing; (iii) capsule compression and partial routing to improve the scalability of capsule networks. We validate our approach on two NLP tasks, namely: multi-label text classification and question answering. Experimental results show that our approach considerably improves over strong competitors on both tasks. In addition, we gain the best results in low-resource settings with few training instances.

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Business Taxonomy Construction Using Concept-Level Hierarchical Clustering
Haodong Bai | Frank Xing | Erik Cambria | Win-Bin Huang
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Financial Technology and Natural Language Processing

2018

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Multimodal Language Analysis in the Wild: CMU-MOSEI Dataset and Interpretable Dynamic Fusion Graph
AmirAli Bagher Zadeh | Paul Pu Liang | Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Louis-Philippe Morency
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Analyzing human multimodal language is an emerging area of research in NLP. Intrinsically this language is multimodal (heterogeneous), sequential and asynchronous; it consists of the language (words), visual (expressions) and acoustic (paralinguistic) modalities all in the form of asynchronous coordinated sequences. From a resource perspective, there is a genuine need for large scale datasets that allow for in-depth studies of this form of language. In this paper we introduce CMU Multimodal Opinion Sentiment and Emotion Intensity (CMU-MOSEI), the largest dataset of sentiment analysis and emotion recognition to date. Using data from CMU-MOSEI and a novel multimodal fusion technique called the Dynamic Fusion Graph (DFG), we conduct experimentation to exploit how modalities interact with each other in human multimodal language. Unlike previously proposed fusion techniques, DFG is highly interpretable and achieves competative performance when compared to the previous state of the art.

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WME 3.0: An Enhanced and Validated Lexicon of Medical Concepts
Anupam Mondal | Dipankar Das | Erik Cambria | Sivaji Bandyopadhyay
Proceedings of the 9th Global Wordnet Conference

Information extraction in the medical domain is laborious and time-consuming due to the insufficient number of domain-specific lexicons and lack of involvement of domain experts such as doctors and medical practitioners. Thus, in the present work, we are motivated to design a new lexicon, WME 3.0 (WordNet of Medical Events), which contains over 10,000 medical concepts along with their part of speech, gloss (descriptive explanations), polarity score, sentiment, similar sentiment words, category, affinity score and gravity score features. In addition, the manual annotators help to validate the overall as well as individual category level of medical concepts of WME 3.0 using Cohen’s Kappa agreement metric. The agreement score indicates almost correct identification of medical concepts and their assigned features in WME 3.0.

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ICON: Interactive Conversational Memory Network for Multimodal Emotion Detection
Devamanyu Hazarika | Soujanya Poria | Rada Mihalcea | Erik Cambria | Roger Zimmermann
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Emotion recognition in conversations is crucial for building empathetic machines. Present works in this domain do not explicitly consider the inter-personal influences that thrive in the emotional dynamics of dialogues. To this end, we propose Interactive COnversational memory Network (ICON), a multimodal emotion detection framework that extracts multimodal features from conversational videos and hierarchically models the self- and inter-speaker emotional influences into global memories. Such memories generate contextual summaries which aid in predicting the emotional orientation of utterance-videos. Our model outperforms state-of-the-art networks on multiple classification and regression tasks in two benchmark datasets.

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IARM: Inter-Aspect Relation Modeling with Memory Networks in Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Navonil Majumder | Soujanya Poria | Alexander Gelbukh | Md. Shad Akhtar | Erik Cambria | Asif Ekbal
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Sentiment analysis has immense implications in e-commerce through user feedback mining. Aspect-based sentiment analysis takes this one step further by enabling businesses to extract aspect specific sentimental information. In this paper, we present a novel approach of incorporating the neighboring aspects related information into the sentiment classification of the target aspect using memory networks. We show that our method outperforms the state of the art by 1.6% on average in two distinct domains: restaurant and laptop.

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CASCADE: Contextual Sarcasm Detection in Online Discussion Forums
Devamanyu Hazarika | Soujanya Poria | Sruthi Gorantla | Erik Cambria | Roger Zimmermann | Rada Mihalcea
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The literature in automated sarcasm detection has mainly focused on lexical-, syntactic- and semantic-level analysis of text. However, a sarcastic sentence can be expressed with contextual presumptions, background and commonsense knowledge. In this paper, we propose a ContextuAl SarCasm DEtector (CASCADE), which adopts a hybrid approach of both content- and context-driven modeling for sarcasm detection in online social media discussions. For the latter, CASCADE aims at extracting contextual information from the discourse of a discussion thread. Also, since the sarcastic nature and form of expression can vary from person to person, CASCADE utilizes user embeddings that encode stylometric and personality features of users. When used along with content-based feature extractors such as convolutional neural networks, we see a significant boost in the classification performance on a large Reddit corpus.

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Proceedings of Grand Challenge and Workshop on Human Multimodal Language (Challenge-HML)
Amir Zadeh | Paul Pu Liang | Louis-Philippe Morency | Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Stefan Scherer
Proceedings of Grand Challenge and Workshop on Human Multimodal Language (Challenge-HML)

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Conversational Memory Network for Emotion Recognition in Dyadic Dialogue Videos
Devamanyu Hazarika | Soujanya Poria | Amir Zadeh | Erik Cambria | Louis-Philippe Morency | Roger Zimmermann
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Emotion recognition in conversations is crucial for the development of empathetic machines. Present methods mostly ignore the role of inter-speaker dependency relations while classifying emotions in conversations. In this paper, we address recognizing utterance-level emotions in dyadic conversational videos. We propose a deep neural framework, termed Conversational Memory Network (CMN), which leverages contextual information from the conversation history. In particular, CMN uses multimodal approach comprising audio, visual and textual features with gated recurrent units to model past utterances of each speaker into memories. These memories are then merged using attention-based hops to capture inter-speaker dependencies. Experiments show a significant improvement of 3 − 4% in accuracy over the state of the art.

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Modeling Inter-Aspect Dependencies for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Devamanyu Hazarika | Soujanya Poria | Prateek Vij | Gangeshwar Krishnamurthy | Erik Cambria | Roger Zimmermann
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis is a fine-grained task of sentiment classification for multiple aspects in a sentence. Present neural-based models exploit aspect and its contextual information in the sentence but largely ignore the inter-aspect dependencies. In this paper, we incorporate this pattern by simultaneous classification of all aspects in a sentence along with temporal dependency processing of their corresponding sentence representations using recurrent networks. Results on the benchmark SemEval 2014 dataset suggest the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

2017

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Time Expression Analysis and Recognition Using Syntactic Token Types and General Heuristic Rules
Xiaoshi Zhong | Aixin Sun | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Extracting time expressions from free text is a fundamental task for many applications. We analyze the time expressions from four datasets and find that only a small group of words are used to express time information, and the words in time expressions demonstrate similar syntactic behaviour. Based on the findings, we propose a type-based approach, named SynTime, to recognize time expressions. Specifically, we define three main syntactic token types, namely time token, modifier, and numeral, to group time-related regular expressions over tokens. On the types we design general heuristic rules to recognize time expressions. In recognition, SynTime first identifies the time tokens from raw text, then searches their surroundings for modifiers and numerals to form time segments, and finally merges the time segments to time expressions. As a light-weight rule-based tagger, SynTime runs in real time, and can be easily expanded by simply adding keywords for the text of different types and of different domains. Experiment on benchmark datasets and tweets data shows that SynTime outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

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Context-Dependent Sentiment Analysis in User-Generated Videos
Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Devamanyu Hazarika | Navonil Majumder | Amir Zadeh | Louis-Philippe Morency
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Multimodal sentiment analysis is a developing area of research, which involves the identification of sentiments in videos. Current research considers utterances as independent entities, i.e., ignores the interdependencies and relations among the utterances of a video. In this paper, we propose a LSTM-based model that enables utterances to capture contextual information from their surroundings in the same video, thus aiding the classification process. Our method shows 5-10% performance improvement over the state of the art and high robustness to generalizability.

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Tensor Fusion Network for Multimodal Sentiment Analysis
Amir Zadeh | Minghai Chen | Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Louis-Philippe Morency
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Multimodal sentiment analysis is an increasingly popular research area, which extends the conventional language-based definition of sentiment analysis to a multimodal setup where other relevant modalities accompany language. In this paper, we pose the problem of multimodal sentiment analysis as modeling intra-modality and inter-modality dynamics. We introduce a novel model, termed Tensor Fusion Networks, which learns both such dynamics end-to-end. The proposed approach is tailored for the volatile nature of spoken language in online videos as well as accompanying gestures and voice. In the experiments, our model outperforms state-of-the-art approaches for both multimodal and unimodal sentiment analysis.

2016

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Label Embedding for Zero-shot Fine-grained Named Entity Typing
Yukun Ma | Erik Cambria | Sa Gao
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Named entity typing is the task of detecting the types of a named entity in context. For instance, given “Eric is giving a presentation”, our goal is to infer that ‘Eric’ is a speaker or a presenter and a person. Existing approaches to named entity typing cannot work with a growing type set and fails to recognize entity mentions of unseen types. In this paper, we present a label embedding method that incorporates prototypical and hierarchical information to learn pre-trained label embeddings. In addition, we adapt a zero-shot learning framework that can predict both seen and previously unseen entity types. We perform evaluation on three benchmark datasets with two settings: 1) few-shots recognition where all types are covered by the training set; and 2) zero-shot recognition where fine-grained types are assumed absent from training set. Results show that prior knowledge encoded using our label embedding methods can significantly boost the performance of classification for both cases.

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A Deeper Look into Sarcastic Tweets Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks
Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Devamanyu Hazarika | Prateek Vij
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

Sarcasm detection is a key task for many natural language processing tasks. In sentiment analysis, for example, sarcasm can flip the polarity of an “apparently positive” sentence and, hence, negatively affect polarity detection performance. To date, most approaches to sarcasm detection have treated the task primarily as a text categorization problem. Sarcasm, however, can be expressed in very subtle ways and requires a deeper understanding of natural language that standard text categorization techniques cannot grasp. In this work, we develop models based on a pre-trained convolutional neural network for extracting sentiment, emotion and personality features for sarcasm detection. Such features, along with the network’s baseline features, allow the proposed models to outperform the state of the art on benchmark datasets. We also address the often ignored generalizability issue of classifying data that have not been seen by the models at learning phase.

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SenticNet 4: A Semantic Resource for Sentiment Analysis Based on Conceptual Primitives
Erik Cambria | Soujanya Poria | Rajiv Bajpai | Bjoern Schuller
Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers

An important difference between traditional AI systems and human intelligence is the human ability to harness commonsense knowledge gleaned from a lifetime of learning and experience to make informed decisions. This allows humans to adapt easily to novel situations where AI fails catastrophically due to a lack of situation-specific rules and generalization capabilities. Commonsense knowledge also provides background information that enables humans to successfully operate in social situations where such knowledge is typically assumed. Since commonsense consists of information that humans take for granted, gathering it is an extremely difficult task. Previous versions of SenticNet were focused on collecting this kind of knowledge for sentiment analysis but they were heavily limited by their inability to generalize. SenticNet 4 overcomes such limitations by leveraging on conceptual primitives automatically generated by means of hierarchical clustering and dimensionality reduction.

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WME: Sense, Polarity and Affinity based Concept Resource for Medical Events
Anupam Mondal | Dipankar Das | Erik Cambria | Sivaji Bandyopadhyay
Proceedings of the 8th Global WordNet Conference (GWC)

In order to overcome the lack of medical corpora, we have developed a WordNet for Medical Events (WME) for identifying medical terms and their sense related information using a seed list. The initial WME resource contains 1654 medical terms or concepts. In the present research, we have reported the enhancement of WME with 6415 number of medical concepts along with their conceptual features viz. Parts-of-Speech (POS), gloss, semantics, polarity, sense and affinity. Several polarity lexicons viz. SentiWordNet, SenticNet, Bing Liu’s subjectivity list and Taboda’s adjective list were introduced with WordNet synonyms and hyponyms for expansion. The semantics feature guided us to build a semantic co-reference relation based network between the related medical concepts. These features help to prepare a medical concept network for better sense relation based visualization. Finally, we evaluated with respect to Adaptive Lesk Algorithm and conducted an agreement analysis for validating the expanded WME resource.

2015

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Proceedings of the third International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media
Shou-de Lin | Lun-Wei Ku | Cheng-Te Li | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the third International Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media

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Deep Convolutional Neural Network Textual Features and Multiple Kernel Learning for Utterance-level Multimodal Sentiment Analysis
Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Alexander Gelbukh
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

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SeNTU: Sentiment Analysis of Tweets by Combining a Rule-based Classifier with Supervised Learning
Prerna Chikersal | Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria
Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval 2015)

2014

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Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media (SocialNLP)
Shou-de Lin | Lun-Wei Ku | Erik Cambria | Tsung-Ting Kuo
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media (SocialNLP)

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A Rule-Based Approach to Aspect Extraction from Product Reviews
Soujanya Poria | Erik Cambria | Lun-Wei Ku | Chen Gui | Alexander Gelbukh
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Social Media (SocialNLP)

2012

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Affective Common Sense Knowledge Acquisition for Sentiment Analysis
Erik Cambria | Yunqing Xia | Amir Hussain
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12)

Thanks to the advent of Web 2.0, the potential for opinion sharing today is unmatched in history. Making meaning out of the huge amount of unstructured information available online, however, is extremely difficult as web-contents, despite being perfectly suitable for human consumption, still remain hardly accessible to machines. To bridge the cognitive and affective gap between word-level natural language data and the concept-level sentiments conveyed by them, affective common sense knowledge is needed. In sentic computing, the general common sense knowledge contained in ConceptNet is usually exploited to spread affective information from selected affect seeds to other concepts. In this work, besides exploiting the emotional content of the Open Mind corpus, we also collect new affective common sense knowledge through label sequential rules, crowd sourcing, and games-with-a-purpose techniques. In particular, we develop Open Mind Common Sentics, an emotion-sensitive IUI that serves both as a platform for affective common sense acquisition and as a publicly available NLP tool for extracting the cognitive and affective information associated with short texts.

2011

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Taking Refuge in Your Personal Sentic Corner
Erik Cambria | Amir Hussain | Chris Eckl
Proceedings of the Workshop on Sentiment Analysis where AI meets Psychology (SAAIP 2011)

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Enriching Social Communication through Semantics and Sentics
Praphul Chandra | Erik Cambria | Alvin Pradeep
Proceedings of the Workshop on Sentiment Analysis where AI meets Psychology (SAAIP 2011)