Mapping natural language commands to web elements
Panupong Pasupat | Tian-Shun Jiang | Evan Liu | Kelvin Guu | Percy Liang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing
The web provides a rich, open-domain environment with textual, structural, and spatial properties. We propose a new task for grounding language in this environment: given a natural language command (e.g., “click on the second article”), choose the correct element on the web page (e.g., a hyperlink or text box). We collected a dataset of over 50,000 commands that capture various phenomena such as functional references (e.g. “find who made this site”), relational reasoning (e.g. “article by john”), and visual reasoning (e.g. “top-most article”). We also implemented and analyzed three baseline models that capture different phenomena present in the dataset.
From Language to Programs: Bridging Reinforcement Learning and Maximum Marginal Likelihood
Kelvin Guu | Panupong Pasupat | Evan Liu | Percy Liang
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)
Our goal is to learn a semantic parser that maps natural language utterances into executable programs when only indirect supervision is available: examples are labeled with the correct execution result, but not the program itself. Consequently, we must search the space of programs for those that output the correct result, while not being misled by spurious programs: incorrect programs that coincidentally output the correct result. We connect two common learning paradigms, reinforcement learning (RL) and maximum marginal likelihood (MML), and then present a new learning algorithm that combines the strengths of both. The new algorithm guards against spurious programs by combining the systematic search traditionally employed in MML with the randomized exploration of RL, and by updating parameters such that probability is spread more evenly across consistent programs. We apply our learning algorithm to a new neural semantic parser and show significant gains over existing state-of-the-art results on a recent context-dependent semantic parsing task.