Federico Bonetti


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An Analysis of Abusive Language Data Collected through a Game with a Purpose
Federico Bonetti | Sara Tonelli
Proceedings of the 9th Workshop on Games and Natural Language Processing within the 13th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In this work we present an analysis of abusive language annotations collected through a 3D video game. With this approach, we are able to involve in the annotation teenagers, i.e. typical targets of cyberbullying, whose data are usually not available for research purposes. Using the game in the framework of educational activities to empower teenagers against online abuse we are able to obtain insights into how teenagers communicate, and what kind of messages they consider more offensive. While players produced interesting annotations and the distributions of classes between players and experts are similar, we obtained a significant number of mismatching judgements between experts and players.

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Work Hard, Play Hard: Collecting Acceptability Annotations through a 3D Game
Federico Bonetti | Elisa Leonardelli | Daniela Trotta | Raffaele Guarasci | Sara Tonelli
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Corpus-based studies on acceptability judgements have always stimulated the interest of researchers, both in theoretical and computational fields. Some approaches focused on spontaneous judgements collected through different types of tasks, others on data annotated through crowd-sourcing platforms, still others relied on expert annotated data available from the literature. The release of CoLA corpus, a large-scale corpus of sentences extracted from linguistic handbooks as examples of acceptable/non acceptable phenomena in English, has revived interest in the reliability of judgements of linguistic experts vs. non-experts. Several issues are still open. In this work, we contribute to this debate by presenting a 3D video game that was used to collect acceptability judgments on Italian sentences. We analyse the resulting annotations in terms of agreement among players and by comparing them with experts’ acceptability judgments. We also discuss different game settings to assess their impact on participants’ motivation and engagement. The final dataset containing 1,062 sentences, which were selected based on majority voting, is released for future research and comparisons.


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Challenges in Designing Games with a Purpose for Abusive Language Annotation
Federico Bonetti | Sara Tonelli
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Bridging Human–Computer Interaction and Natural Language Processing

In this paper we discuss several challenges related to the development of a 3D game, whose goal is to raise awareness on cyberbullying while collecting linguistic annotation on offensive language. The game is meant to be used by teenagers, thus raising a number of issues that need to be tackled during development. For example, the game aesthetics should be appealing for players belonging to this age group, but at the same time all possible solutions should be implemented to meet privacy requirements. Also, the task of linguistic annotation should be possibly hidden, adopting so-called orthogonal game mechanics, without affecting the quality of collected data. While some of these challenges are being tackled in the game development, some others are discussed in this paper but still lack an ultimate solution.


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A 3D Role-Playing Game for Abusive Language Annotation
Federico Bonetti | Sara Tonelli
Workshop on Games and Natural Language Processing

Gamification has been applied to many linguistic annotation tasks, as an alternative to crowdsourcing platforms to collect annotated data in an inexpensive way. However, we think that still much has to be explored. Games with a Purpose (GWAPs) tend to lack important elements that we commonly see in commercial games, such as 2D and 3D worlds or a story. Making GWAPs more similar to full-fledged video games in order to involve users more easily and increase dissemination is a demanding yet interesting ground to explore. In this paper we present a 3D role-playing game for abusive language annotation that is currently under development.