Fei Sha


2023

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FiDO: Fusion-in-Decoder optimized for stronger performance and faster inference
Michiel de Jong | Yury Zemlyanskiy | Joshua Ainslie | Nicholas FitzGerald | Sumit Sanghai | Fei Sha | William Cohen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Fusion-in-Decoder (FiD) is a powerful retrieval-augmented language model that sets the state-of-the-art on many knowledge-intensive NLP tasks. However, the architecture used for FiD was chosen by making minimal modifications to a standard T5 model, which our analysis shows to be highly suboptimal for a retrieval-augmented model. In particular, FiD allocates the bulk of FLOPs to the encoder, while the majority of inference time results from memory bandwidth constraints in the decoder. We propose two simple changes to the FiD architecture to alleviate memory bandwidth constraints, and speed up inference by 7x. This allows us to use a much larger decoder at modest cost. We denote FiD with the above modifications as FiDO, and show that it strongly improves performance over existing FiD models for a wide range of inference budgets. For example, FiDO-Large-XXL performs faster inference than FiD-Base and achieves better performance than FiD-Large.

2022

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Generate-and-Retrieve: Use Your Predictions to Improve Retrieval for Semantic Parsing
Yury Zemlyanskiy | Michiel de Jong | Joshua Ainslie | Panupong Pasupat | Peter Shaw | Linlu Qiu | Sumit Sanghai | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

A common recent approach to semantic parsing augments sequence-to-sequence models by retrieving and appending a set of training samples, called exemplars. The effectiveness of this recipe is limited by the ability to retrieve informative exemplars that help produce the correct parse, which is especially challenging in low-resource settings. Existing retrieval is commonly based on similarity of query and exemplar inputs. We propose GandR, a retrieval procedure that retrieves exemplars for which outputs are also similar. GandR first generates a preliminary prediction with input-based retrieval. Then, it retrieves exemplars with outputs similar to the preliminary prediction which are used to generate a final prediction. GandR sets the state of the art on multiple low-resource semantic parsing tasks.

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Evaluating the Impact of Model Scale for Compositional Generalization in Semantic Parsing
Linlu Qiu | Peter Shaw | Panupong Pasupat | Tianze Shi | Jonathan Herzig | Emily Pitler | Fei Sha | Kristina Toutanova
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Despite their strong performance on many tasks, pre-trained language models have been shown to struggle on out-of-distribution compositional generalization. Meanwhile, recent work has shown considerable improvements on many NLP tasks from model scaling. Can scaling up model size also improve compositional generalization in semantic parsing? We evaluate encoder-decoder models up to 11B parameters and decoder-only models up to 540B parameters, and compare model scaling curves for three different methods for applying a pre-trained language model to a new task: fine-tuning all parameters, prompt tuning, and in-context learning. We observe that fine-tuning generally has flat or negative scaling curves on out-of-distribution compositional generalization in semantic parsing evaluations. In-context learning has positive scaling curves, but is generally outperformed by much smaller fine-tuned models. Prompt-tuning can outperform fine-tuning, suggesting further potential improvements from scaling as it exhibits a more positive scaling curve. Additionally, we identify several error trends that vary with model scale. For example, larger models are generally better at modeling the syntax of the output space, but are also more prone to certain types of overfitting. Overall, our study highlights limitations of current techniques for effectively leveraging model scale for compositional generalization, while our analysis also suggests promising directions for future work.

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Improving Compositional Generalization with Latent Structure and Data Augmentation
Linlu Qiu | Peter Shaw | Panupong Pasupat | Pawel Nowak | Tal Linzen | Fei Sha | Kristina Toutanova
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Generic unstructured neural networks have been shown to struggle on out-of-distribution compositional generalization. Compositional data augmentation via example recombination has transferred some prior knowledge about compositionality to such black-box neural models for several semantic parsing tasks, but this often required task-specific engineering or provided limited gains. We present a more powerful data recombination method using a model called Compositional Structure Learner (CSL). CSL is a generative model with a quasi-synchronous context-free grammar backbone, which we induce from the training data. We sample recombined examples from CSL and add them to the fine-tuning data of a pre-trained sequence-to-sequence model (T5). This procedure effectively transfers most of CSL’s compositional bias to T5 for diagnostic tasks, and results in a model even stronger than a T5-CSL ensemble on two real world compositional generalization tasks. This results in new state-of-the-art performance for these challenging semantic parsing tasks requiring generalization to both natural language variation and novel compositions of elements.

2021

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DOCENT: Learning Self-Supervised Entity Representations from Large Document Collections
Yury Zemlyanskiy | Sudeep Gandhe | Ruining He | Bhargav Kanagal | Anirudh Ravula | Juraj Gottweis | Fei Sha | Ilya Eckstein
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Main Volume

This paper explores learning rich self-supervised entity representations from large amounts of associated text. Once pre-trained, these models become applicable to multiple entity-centric tasks such as ranked retrieval, knowledge base completion, question answering, and more. Unlike other methods that harvest self-supervision signals based merely on a local context within a sentence, we radically expand the notion of context to include any available text related to an entity. This enables a new class of powerful, high-capacity representations that can ultimately distill much of the useful information about an entity from multiple text sources, without any human supervision. We present several training strategies that, unlike prior approaches, learn to jointly predict words and entities – strategies we compare experimentally on downstream tasks in the TV-Movies domain, such as MovieLens tag prediction from user reviews and natural language movie search. As evidenced by results, our models match or outperform competitive baselines, sometimes with little or no fine-tuning, and are also able to scale to very large corpora. Finally, we make our datasets and pre-trained models publicly available. This includes Reviews2Movielens, mapping the ~1B word corpus of Amazon movie reviews (He and McAuley, 2016) to MovieLens tags (Harper and Konstan, 2016), as well as Reddit Movie Suggestions with natural language queries and corresponding community recommendations.

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ReadTwice: Reading Very Large Documents with Memories
Yury Zemlyanskiy | Joshua Ainslie | Michiel de Jong | Philip Pham | Ilya Eckstein | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Knowledge-intensive tasks such as question answering often require assimilating information from different sections of large inputs such as books or article collections. We propose ReadTwice, a simple and effective technique that combines several strengths of prior approaches to model long-range dependencies with Transformers. The main idea is to read text in small segments, in parallel, summarizing each segment into a memory table to be used in a second read of the text. We show that the method outperforms models of comparable size on several question answering (QA) datasets and sets a new state of the art on the challenging NarrativeQA task, with questions about entire books.

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Systematic Generalization on gSCAN: What is Nearly Solved and What is Next?
Linlu Qiu | Hexiang Hu | Bowen Zhang | Peter Shaw | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We analyze the grounded SCAN (gSCAN) benchmark, which was recently proposed to study systematic generalization for grounded language understanding. First, we study which aspects of the original benchmark can be solved by commonly used methods in multi-modal research. We find that a general-purpose Transformer-based model with cross-modal attention achieves strong performance on a majority of the gSCAN splits, surprisingly outperforming more specialized approaches from prior work. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that many of the remaining errors reveal the same fundamental challenge in systematic generalization of linguistic constructs regardless of visual context. Second, inspired by this finding, we propose challenging new tasks for gSCAN by generating data to incorporate relations between objects in the visual environment. Finally, we find that current models are surprisingly data inefficient given the narrow scope of commands in gSCAN, suggesting another challenge for future work.

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Visually Grounded Concept Composition
Bowen Zhang | Hexiang Hu | Linlu Qiu | Peter Shaw | Fei Sha
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

We investigate ways to compose complex concepts in texts from primitive ones while grounding them in images. We propose Concept and Relation Graph (CRG), which builds on top of constituency analysis and consists of recursively combined concepts with predicate functions. Meanwhile, we propose a concept composition neural network called Composer to leverage the CRG for visually grounded concept learning. Specifically, we learn the grounding of both primitive and all composed concepts by aligning them to images and show that learning to compose leads to more robust grounding results, measured in text-to-image matching accuracy. Notably, our model can model grounded concepts forming at both the finer-grained sentence level and the coarser-grained intermediate level (or word-level). Composer leads to pronounced improvement in matching accuracy when the evaluation data has significant compound divergence from the training data.

2020

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Learning to Represent Image and Text with Denotation Graph
Bowen Zhang | Hexiang Hu | Vihan Jain | Eugene Ie | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Learning to fuse vision and language information and representing them is an important research problem with many applications. Recent progresses have leveraged the ideas of pre-training (from language modeling) and attention layers in Transformers to learn representation from datasets containing images aligned with linguistic expressions that describe the images. In this paper, we propose learning representations from a set of implied, visually grounded expressions between image and text, automatically mined from those datasets. In particular, we use denotation graphs to represent how specific concepts (such as sentences describing images) can be linked to abstract and generic concepts (such as short phrases) that are also visually grounded. This type of generic-to-specific relations can be discovered using linguistic analysis tools. We propose methods to incorporate such relations into learning representation. We show that state-of-the-art multimodal learning models can be further improved by leveraging automatically harvested structural relations. The representations lead to stronger empirical results on downstream tasks of cross-modal image retrieval, referring expression, and compositional attribute-object recognition. Both our codes and the extracted denotation graphs on the Flickr30K and the COCO datasets are publically available on https://sha-lab.github.io/DG.

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BabyWalk: Going Farther in Vision-and-Language Navigation by Taking Baby Steps
Wang Zhu | Hexiang Hu | Jiacheng Chen | Zhiwei Deng | Vihan Jain | Eugene Ie | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Learning to follow instructions is of fundamental importance to autonomous agents for vision-and-language navigation (VLN). In this paper, we study how an agent can navigate long paths when learning from a corpus that consists of shorter ones. We show that existing state-of-the-art agents do not generalize well. To this end, we propose BabyWalk, a new VLN agent that is learned to navigate by decomposing long instructions into shorter ones (BabySteps) and completing them sequentially. A special design memory buffer is used by the agent to turn its past experiences into contexts for future steps. The learning process is composed of two phases. In the first phase, the agent uses imitation learning from demonstration to accomplish BabySteps. In the second phase, the agent uses curriculum-based reinforcement learning to maximize rewards on navigation tasks with increasingly longer instructions. We create two new benchmark datasets (of long navigation tasks) and use them in conjunction with existing ones to examine BabyWalk’s generalization ability. Empirical results show that BabyWalk achieves state-of-the-art results on several metrics, in particular, is able to follow long instructions better. The codes and the datasets are released on our project page: https://github.com/Sha-Lab/babywalk.

2018

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Aiming to Know You Better Perhaps Makes Me a More Engaging Dialogue Partner
Yury Zemlyanskiy | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 22nd Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning

There have been several attempts to define a plausible motivation for a chit-chat dialogue agent that can lead to engaging conversations. In this work, we explore a new direction where the agent specifically focuses on discovering information about its interlocutor. We formalize this approach by defining a quantitative metric. We propose an algorithm for the agent to maximize it. We validate the idea with human evaluation where our system outperforms various baselines. We demonstrate that the metric indeed correlates with the human judgments of engagingness.

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A Probabilistic Model for Joint Learning of Word Embeddings from Texts and Images
Melissa Ailem | Bowen Zhang | Aurelien Bellet | Pascal Denis | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Several recent studies have shown the benefits of combining language and perception to infer word embeddings. These multimodal approaches either simply combine pre-trained textual and visual representations (e.g. features extracted from convolutional neural networks), or use the latter to bias the learning of textual word embeddings. In this work, we propose a novel probabilistic model to formalize how linguistic and perceptual inputs can work in concert to explain the observed word-context pairs in a text corpus. Our approach learns textual and visual representations jointly: latent visual factors couple together a skip-gram model for co-occurrence in linguistic data and a generative latent variable model for visual data. Extensive experimental studies validate the proposed model. Concretely, on the tasks of assessing pairwise word similarity and image/caption retrieval, our approach attains equally competitive or stronger results when compared to other state-of-the-art multimodal models.

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Multi-Task Learning for Sequence Tagging: An Empirical Study
Soravit Changpinyo | Hexiang Hu | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

We study three general multi-task learning (MTL) approaches on 11 sequence tagging tasks. Our extensive empirical results show that in about 50% of the cases, jointly learning all 11 tasks improves upon either independent or pairwise learning of the tasks. We also show that pairwise MTL can inform us what tasks can benefit others or what tasks can be benefited if they are learned jointly. In particular, we identify tasks that can always benefit others as well as tasks that can always be harmed by others. Interestingly, one of our MTL approaches yields embeddings of the tasks that reveal the natural clustering of semantic and syntactic tasks. Our inquiries have opened the doors to further utilization of MTL in NLP.

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Being Negative but Constructively: Lessons Learnt from Creating Better Visual Question Answering Datasets
Wei-Lun Chao | Hexiang Hu | Fei Sha
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

Visual question answering (Visual QA) has attracted a lot of attention lately, seen essentially as a form of (visual) Turing test that artificial intelligence should strive to achieve. In this paper, we study a crucial component of this task: how can we design good datasets for the task? We focus on the design of multiple-choice based datasets where the learner has to select the right answer from a set of candidate ones including the target (i.e., the correct one) and the decoys (i.e., the incorrect ones). Through careful analysis of the results attained by state-of-the-art learning models and human annotators on existing datasets, we show that the design of the decoy answers has a significant impact on how and what the learning models learn from the datasets. In particular, the resulting learner can ignore the visual information, the question, or both while still doing well on the task. Inspired by this, we propose automatic procedures to remedy such design deficiencies. We apply the procedures to re-construct decoy answers for two popular Visual QA datasets as well as to create a new Visual QA dataset from the Visual Genome project, resulting in the largest dataset for this task. Extensive empirical studies show that the design deficiencies have been alleviated in the remedied datasets and the performance on them is likely a more faithful indicator of the difference among learning models. The datasets are released and publicly available via http://www.teds.usc.edu/website_vqa/.

2003

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Shallow Parsing with Conditional Random Fields
Fei Sha | Fernando Pereira
Proceedings of the 2003 Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics