Feiyu Gao


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GEM: Gestalt Enhanced Markup Language Model for Web Understanding via Render Tree
Zirui Shao | Feiyu Gao | Zhongda Qi | Hangdi Xing | Jiajun Bu | Zhi Yu | Qi Zheng | Xiaozhong Liu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Inexhaustible web content carries abundant perceptible information beyond text. Unfortunately, most prior efforts in pre-trained Language Models (LMs) ignore such cyber-richness, while few of them only employ plain HTMLs, and crucial information in the rendered web, such as visual, layout, and style, are excluded. Intuitively, those perceptible web information can provide essential intelligence to facilitate content understanding tasks. This study presents an innovative Gestalt Enhanced Markup (GEM) Language Model inspired by Gestalt psychological theory for hosting heterogeneous visual information from the render tree into the language model without requiring additional visual input. Comprehensive experiments on multiple downstream tasks, i.e., web question answering and web information extraction, validate GEM superiority.


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Merge and Recognize: A Geometry and 2D Context Aware Graph Model for Named Entity Recognition from Visual Documents
Chuwei Luo | Yongpan Wang | Qi Zheng | Liangchen Li | Feiyu Gao | Shiyu Zhang
Proceedings of the Graph-based Methods for Natural Language Processing (TextGraphs)

Named entity recognition (NER) from visual documents, such as invoices, receipts or business cards, is a critical task for visual document understanding. Most classical approaches use a sequence-based model (typically BiLSTM-CRF framework) without considering document structure. Recent work on graph-based model using graph convolutional networks to encode visual and textual features have achieved promising performance on the task. However, few attempts take geometry information of text segments (text in bounding box) in visual documents into account. Meanwhile, existing methods do not consider that related text segments which need to be merged to form a complete entity in many real-world situations. In this paper, we present GraphNEMR, a graph-based model that uses graph convolutional networks to jointly merge text segments and recognize named entities. By incorporating geometry information from visual documents into our model, richer 2D context information is generated to improve document representations. To merge text segments, we introduce a novel mechanism that captures both geometry information as well as semantic information based on pre-trained language model. Experimental results show that the proposed GraphNEMR model outperforms both sequence-based and graph-based SOTA methods significantly.


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Graph Convolution for Multimodal Information Extraction from Visually Rich Documents
Xiaojing Liu | Feiyu Gao | Qiong Zhang | Huasha Zhao
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Industry Papers)

Visually rich documents (VRDs) are ubiquitous in daily business and life. Examples are purchase receipts, insurance policy documents, custom declaration forms and so on. In VRDs, visual and layout information is critical for document understanding, and texts in such documents cannot be serialized into the one-dimensional sequence without losing information. Classic information extraction models such as BiLSTM-CRF typically operate on text sequences and do not incorporate visual features. In this paper, we introduce a graph convolution based model to combine textual and visual information presented in VRDs. Graph embeddings are trained to summarize the context of a text segment in the document, and further combined with text embeddings for entity extraction. Extensive experiments have been conducted to show that our method outperforms BiLSTM-CRF baselines by significant margins, on two real-world datasets. Additionally, ablation studies are also performed to evaluate the effectiveness of each component of our model.