Felix Kreuk


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Augmentation Invariant Discrete Representation for Generative Spoken Language Modeling
Itai Gat | Felix Kreuk | Tu Anh Nguyen | Ann Lee | Jade Copet | Gabriel Synnaeve | Emmanuel Dupoux | Yossi Adi
Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Spoken Language Translation (IWSLT 2023)

Generative Spoken Language Modeling research focuses on optimizing speech Language Models (LMs) using raw audio recordings without accessing any textual supervision. Such speech LMs usually operate over discrete units obtained from quantizing internal representations of self-supervised models. Although such units show impressive modeling results, their robustness capabilities have not been extensively investigated. This work focuses on improving the robustness of discrete input representations for generative spoken language modeling. First, we formally define how to measure the robustness of such representations to various signal variations that do not alter the spoken information (e.g., time-stretch). Next, we empirically demonstrate how current state-of-the-art representation models lack robustness to such variations. To overcome this, we propose an effective and efficient method to learn robust discrete speech representation for generative spoken language modeling. The proposed approach is based on applying a set of signal transformations to the speech signal and optimizing the model using an iterative pseudo-labeling scheme. Our method significantly improves over the evaluated baselines when considering encoding and modeling metrics. We additionally evaluate our method on the speech-to-speech translation task, considering Spanish-English and French-English translations, and show the proposed approach outperforms the evaluated baselines.


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Textless Speech Emotion Conversion using Discrete & Decomposed Representations
Felix Kreuk | Adam Polyak | Jade Copet | Eugene Kharitonov | Tu Anh Nguyen | Morgan Rivière | Wei-Ning Hsu | Abdelrahman Mohamed | Emmanuel Dupoux | Yossi Adi
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Speech emotion conversion is the task of modifying the perceived emotion of a speech utterance while preserving the lexical content and speaker identity. In this study, we cast the problem of emotion conversion as a spoken language translation task. We use a decomposition of the speech signal into discrete learned representations, consisting of phonetic-content units, prosodic features, speaker, and emotion. First, we modify the speech content by translating the phonetic-content units to a target emotion, and then predict the prosodic features based on these units. Finally, the speech waveform is generated by feeding the predicted representations into a neural vocoder. Such a paradigm allows us to go beyond spectral and parametric changes of the signal, and model non-verbal vocalizations, such as laughter insertion, yawning removal, etc. We demonstrate objectively and subjectively that the proposed method is vastly superior to current approaches and even beats text-based systems in terms of perceived emotion and audio quality. We rigorously evaluate all components of such a complex system and conclude with an extensive model analysis and ablation study to better emphasize the architectural choices, strengths and weaknesses of the proposed method. Samples are available under the following link: https://speechbot.github.io/emotion