Florian Kunneman


2019

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Question Similarity in Community Question Answering: A Systematic Exploration of Preprocessing Methods and Models
Florian Kunneman | Thiago Castro Ferreira | Emiel Krahmer | Antal van den Bosch
Proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP 2019)

Community Question Answering forums are popular among Internet users, and a basic problem they encounter is trying to find out if their question has already been posed before. To address this issue, NLP researchers have developed methods to automatically detect question-similarity, which was one of the shared tasks in SemEval. The best performing systems for this task made use of Syntactic Tree Kernels or the SoftCosine metric. However, it remains unclear why these methods seem to work, whether their performance can be improved by better preprocessing methods and what kinds of errors they (and other methods) make. In this paper, we therefore systematically combine and compare these two approaches with the more traditional BM25 and translation-based models. Moreover, we analyze the impact of preprocessing steps (lowercasing, suppression of punctuation and stop words removal) and word meaning similarity based on different distributions (word translation probability, Word2Vec, fastText and ELMo) on the performance of the task. We conduct an error analysis to gain insight into the differences in performance between the system set-ups. The implementation is made publicly available from https://github.com/fkunneman/DiscoSumo/tree/master/ranlp.

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Detecting harassment in real-time as conversations develop
Wessel Stoop | Florian Kunneman | Antal van den Bosch | Ben Miller
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Abusive Language Online

We developed a machine-learning-based method to detect video game players that harass teammates or opponents in chat earlier in the conversation. This real-time technology would allow gaming companies to intervene during games, such as issue warnings or muting or banning a player. In a proof-of-concept experiment on League of Legends data we compute and visualize evaluation metrics for a machine learning classifier as conversations unfold, and observe that the optimal precision and recall of detecting toxic players at each moment in the conversation depends on the confidence threshold of the classifier: the threshold should start low, and increase as the conversation unfolds. How fast this sliding threshold should increase depends on the training set size.

2018

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Aspect-based summarization of pros and cons in unstructured product reviews
Florian Kunneman | Sander Wubben | Antal van den Bosch | Emiel Krahmer
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

We developed three systems for generating pros and cons summaries of product reviews. Automating this task eases the writing of product reviews, and offers readers quick access to the most important information. We compared SynPat, a system based on syntactic phrases selected on the basis of valence scores, against a neural-network-based system trained to map bag-of-words representations of reviews directly to pros and cons, and the same neural system trained on clusters of word-embedding encodings of similar pros and cons. We evaluated the systems in two ways: first on held-out reviews with gold-standard pros and cons, and second by asking human annotators to rate the systems’ output on relevance and completeness. In the second evaluation, the gold-standard pros and cons were assessed along with the system output. We find that the human-generated summaries are not deemed as significantly more relevant or complete than the SynPat systems; the latter are scored higher than the human-generated summaries on a precision metric. The neural approaches yield a lower performance in the human assessment, and are outperformed by the baseline.

2017

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Proceedings of the Student Research Workshop at the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics
Florian Kunneman | Uxoa Iñurrieta | John J. Camilleri | Mariona Coll Ardanuy
Proceedings of the Student Research Workshop at the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

2016

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Sarcastic Soulmates: Intimacy and irony markers in social media messaging
Koen Hallmann | Florian Kunneman | Christine Liebrecht | Antal van den Bosch | Margot van Mulken
Linguistic Issues in Language Technology, Volume 14, 2016 - Modality: Logic, Semantics, Annotation, and Machine Learning

Verbal irony, or sarcasm, presents a significant technical and conceptual challenge when it comes to automatic detection. Moreover, it can be a disruptive factor in sentiment analysis and opinion mining, because it changes the polarity of a message implicitly. Extant methods for automatic detection are mostly based on overt clues to ironic intent such as hashtags, also known as irony markers. In this paper, we investigate whether people who know each other make use of irony markers less often than people who do not know each other. We trained a machinelearning classifier to detect sarcasm in Twitter messages (tweets) that were addressed to specific users, and in tweets that were not addressed to a particular user. Human coders analyzed the top-1000 features found to be most discriminative into ten categories of irony markers. The classifier was also tested within and across the two categories. We find that tweets with a user mention contain fewer irony markers than tweets not addressed to a particular user. Classification experiments confirm that the irony in the two types of tweets is signaled differently. The within-category performance of the classifier is about 91% for both categories, while cross-category experiments yield substantially lower generalization performance scores of 75% and 71%. We conclude that irony markers are used more often when there is less mutual knowledge between sender and receiver. Senders addressing other Twitter users less often use irony markers, relying on mutual knowledge which should lead the receiver to infer ironic intent from more implicit clues. With regard to automatic detection, we conclude that our classifier is able to detect ironic tweets addressed at another user as reliably as tweets that are not addressed at at a particular person.

2015

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Automatically Identifying Periodic Social Events from Twitter
Florian Kunneman | Antal Van den Bosch
Proceedings of the International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing

2014

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The (Un)Predictability of Emotional Hashtags in Twitter
Florian Kunneman | Christine Liebrecht | Antal van den Bosch
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Language Analysis for Social Media (LASM)

2013

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The perfect solution for detecting sarcasm in tweets #not
Christine Liebrecht | Florian Kunneman | Antal van den Bosch
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Computational Approaches to Subjectivity, Sentiment and Social Media Analysis