Transformer-based architectures are the model of choice for natural language understanding, but they come at a significant cost, as they have quadratic complexity in the input length, require a lot of training data, and can be difficult to tune. In the pursuit of lower costs, we investigate simple MLP-based architectures. We find that existing architectures such as MLPMixer, which achieves token mixing through a static MLP applied to each feature independently, are too detached from the inductive biases required for natural language understanding. In this paper, we propose a simple variant, HyperMixer, which forms the token mixing MLP dynamically using hypernetworks. Empirically, we demonstrate that our model performs better than alternative MLP-based models, and on par with Transformers. In contrast to Transformers, HyperMixer achieves these results at substantially lower costs in terms of processing time, training data, and hyperparameter tuning.
Text autoencoders are often used for unsupervised conditional text generation by applying mappings in the latent space to change attributes to the desired values. Recently, Mai et al. (2020) proposed Emb2Emb, a method to learn these mappings in the embedding space of an autoencoder. However, their method is restricted to autoencoders with a single-vector embedding, which limits how much information can be retained. We address this issue by extending their method to Bag-of-Vectors Autoencoders (BoV-AEs), which encode the text into a variable-size bag of vectors that grows with the size of the text, as in attention-based models. This allows to encode and reconstruct much longer texts than standard autoencoders. Analogous to conventional autoencoders, we propose regularization techniques that facilitate learning meaningful operations in the latent space. Finally, we adapt Emb2Emb for a training scheme that learns to map an input bag to an output bag, including a novel loss function and neural architecture. Our empirical evaluations on unsupervised sentiment transfer show that our method performs substantially better than a standard autoencoder.
Text autoencoders are commonly used for conditional generation tasks such as style transfer. We propose methods which are plug and play, where any pretrained autoencoder can be used, and only require learning a mapping within the autoencoder’s embedding space, training embedding-to-embedding (Emb2Emb). This reduces the need for labeled training data for the task and makes the training procedure more efficient. Crucial to the success of this method is a loss term for keeping the mapped embedding on the manifold of the autoencoder and a mapping which is trained to navigate the manifold by learning offset vectors. Evaluations on style transfer tasks both with and without sequence-to-sequence supervision show that our method performs better than or comparable to strong baselines while being up to four times faster.