Franck Dernoncourt


2022

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Transfer Learning and Prediction Consistency for Detecting Offensive Spans of Text
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Ning Xu | Quan Tran | Varun Manjunatha | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Toxic span detection is the task of recognizing offensive spans in a text snippet. Although there has been prior work on classifying text snippets as offensive or not, the task of recognizing spans responsible for the toxicity of a text is not explored yet. In this work, we introduce a novel multi-task framework for toxic span detection in which the model seeks to simultaneously predict offensive words and opinion phrases to leverage their inter-dependencies and improve the performance. Moreover, we introduce a novel regularization mechanism to encourage the consistency of the model predictions across similar inputs for toxic span detection. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model compared to strong baselines.

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Document-Level Event Argument Extraction via Optimal Transport
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Minh Van Nguyen | Franck Dernoncourt | Bonan Min | Thien Nguyen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Event Argument Extraction (EAE) is one of the sub-tasks of event extraction, aiming to recognize the role of each entity mention toward a specific event trigger. Despite the success of prior works in sentence-level EAE, the document-level setting is less explored. In particular, whereas syntactic structures of sentences have been shown to be effective for sentence-level EAE, prior document-level EAE models totally ignore syntactic structures for documents. Hence, in this work, we study the importance of syntactic structures in document-level EAE. Specifically, we propose to employ Optimal Transport (OT) to induce structures of documents based on sentence-level syntactic structures and tailored to EAE task. Furthermore, we propose a novel regularization technique to explicitly constrain the contributions of unrelated context words in the final prediction for EAE. We perform extensive experiments on the benchmark document-level EAE dataset RAMS that leads to the state-of-the-art performance. Moreover, our experiments on the ACE 2005 dataset reveals the effectiveness of the proposed model in the sentence-level EAE by establishing new state-of-the-art results.

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Multimodal Intent Discovery from Livestream Videos
Adyasha Maharana | Quan Tran | Franck Dernoncourt | Seunghyun Yoon | Trung Bui | Walter Chang | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Individuals, educational institutions, and businesses are prolific at generating instructional video content such as “how-to” and tutorial guides. While significant progress has been made in basic video understanding tasks, identifying procedural intent within these instructional videos is a challenging and important task that remains unexplored but essential to video summarization, search, and recommendations. This paper introduces the problem of instructional intent identification and extraction from software instructional livestreams. We construct and present a new multimodal dataset consisting of software instructional livestreams and containing manual annotations for both detailed and abstract procedural intent that enable training and evaluation of joint video and text understanding models. We then introduce a multimodal cascaded cross-attention model to efficiently combine the weaker and noisier video signal with the more discriminative text signal. Our experiments show that our proposed model brings significant gains compared to strong baselines, including large-scale pretrained multimodal models. Our analysis further identifies that the task benefits from spatial as well as motion features extracted from videos, and provides insight on how the video signal is preferentially used for intent discovery. We also show that current models struggle to comprehend the nature of abstract intents, revealing important gaps in multimodal understanding and paving the way for future work.

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Fine-grained Image Captioning with CLIP Reward
Jaemin Cho | Seunghyun Yoon | Ajinkya Kale | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Mohit Bansal
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Modern image captioning models are usually trained with text similarity objectives. However, since reference captions in public datasets often describe the most salient common objects, models trained with the text similarity objectives tend to ignore specific and detailed aspects of an image that distinguish it from others. Towards more descriptive and distinctive caption generation, we propose to use CLIP, a multimodal encoder trained on huge image-text pairs from the web, to calculate multi-modal similarity and use it as a reward function. We also propose a simple finetuning strategy of CLIP text encoder to improve grammar that does not require extra text annotation. This completely eliminates the need for reference captions during the reward computation. To comprehensively evaluate descriptive captions, we introduce FineCapEval, a new dataset for caption evaluation with fine-grained criteria: overall, background, object, relations. In our experiments on text-to-image retrieval and FineCapEval, the proposed CLIP-guided model generates more distinctive captions than the CIDEroptimized model. We also show that our unsupervised grammar finetuning of the CLIP text encoder alleviates the degeneration problem of the naive CLIP reward. Lastly, we show human analysis where the annotators strongly prefer CLIP reward to CIDEr and MLE objectives on diverse criteria.

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BehancePR: A Punctuation Restoration Dataset for Livestreaming Video Transcript
Viet Lai | Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Given the increasing number of livestreaming videos, automatic speech recognition and post-processing for livestreaming video transcripts are crucial for efficient data management as well as knowledge mining. A key step in this process is punctuation restoration which restores fundamental text structures such as phrase and sentence boundaries from the video transcripts. This work presents a new human-annotated corpus, called BehancePR, for punctuation restoration in livestreaming video transcripts. Our experiments on BehancePR demonstrate the challenges of punctuation restoration for this domain. Furthermore, we show that popular natural language processing toolkits like Stanford Stanza, Spacy, and Trankit underperform on detecting sentence boundary on non-punctuated transcripts of livestreaming videos. The dataset is publicly accessible at http://github.com/nlp-uoregon/behancepr.

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Event Detection for Suicide Understanding
Luis Guzman-Nateras | Viet Lai | Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Suicide is a serious problem in every society. Understanding life events of a potential patient is essential for successful suicide-risk assessment and prevention. In this work, we focus on the Event Detection (ED) task to identify event trigger words of suicide-related events in public posts of discussion forums. In particular, we introduce SuicideED: a new dataset for the ED task that features seven suicidal event types to comprehensively capture suicide actions and ideation, and general risk and protective factors. Our experiments with current state-of-the-art ED systems suggest that this domain poses meaningful challenges as there is significant room for improvement of ED models. We will release SuicideED to support future research in this important area.

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BehanceCC: A ChitChat Detection Dataset For Livestreaming Video Transcripts
Viet Lai | Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Livestreaming videos have become an effective broadcasting method for both video sharing and educational purposes. However, livestreaming videos contain a considerable amount of off-topic content (i.e., up to 50%) which introduces significant noises and data load to downstream applications. This paper presents BehanceCC, a new human-annotated benchmark dataset for off-topic detection (also called chitchat detection) in livestreaming video transcripts. In addition to describing the challenges of the dataset, our extensive experiments of various baselines reveal the complexity of chitchat detection for livestreaming videos and suggest potential future research directions for this task. The dataset will be made publicly available to foster research in this area.

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BehanceQA: A New Dataset for Identifying Question-Answer Pairs in Video Transcripts
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Viet Lai | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Question-Answer (QA) is one of the effective methods for storing knowledge which can be used for future retrieval. As such, identifying mentions of questions and their answers in text is necessary for a knowledge construction and retrieval systems. In the literature, QA identification has been well studied in the NLP community. However, most of the prior works are restricted to formal written documents such as papers or websites. As such, Questions and Answers that are presented in informal/noisy documents have not been adequately studied. One of the domains that can significantly benefit from QA identification is the domain of livestreaming video transcripts that involve abundant QA pairs to provide valuable knowledge for future users and services. Since video transcripts are often transcribed automatically for scale, they are prone to errors. Combined with the informal nature of discussion in a video, prior QA identification systems might not be able to perform well in this domain. To enable comprehensive research in this domain, we present a large-scale QA identification dataset annotated by human over transcripts of 500 hours of streamed videos. We employ Behance.net to collect the videos and their automatically obtained transcripts. Furthermore, we conduct extensive analysis on the annotated dataset to understand the complexity of QA identification for livestreaming video transcripts. Our experiments show that the annotated dataset presents unique challenges for existing methods and more research is necessary to explore more effective methods. The dataset and the models developed in this work will be publicly released for future research.

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Virtual Knowledge Graph Construction for Zero-Shot Domain-Specific Document Retrieval
Yeon Seonwoo | Seunghyun Yoon | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Alice Oh
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Domain-specific documents cover terminologies and specialized knowledge. This has been the main challenge of domain-specific document retrieval systems. Previous approaches propose domain-adaptation and transfer learning methods to alleviate this problem. However, these approaches still follow the same document representation method in previous approaches; a document is embedded into a single vector. In this study, we propose VKGDR. VKGDR represents a given corpus into a graph of entities and their relations (known as a virtual knowledge graph) and computes the relevance between queries and documents based on the graph representation. We conduct three experiments 1) domain-specific document retrieval, 2) comparison of our virtual knowledge graph construction method with previous approaches, and 3) ablation study on each component of our virtual knowledge graph. From the results, we see that unsupervised VKGDR outperforms baselines in a zero-shot setting and even outperforms fully-supervised bi-encoder. We also verify that our virtual knowledge graph construction method results in better retrieval performance than previous approaches.

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MECI: A Multilingual Dataset for Event Causality Identification
Viet Dac Lai | Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Minh Van Nguyen | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Event Causality Identification (ECI) is the task of detecting causal relations between events mentioned in the text. Although this task has been extensively studied for English materials, it is under-explored for many other languages. A major reason for this issue is the lack of multilingual datasets that provide consistent annotations for event causality relations in multiple non-English languages. To address this issue, we introduce a new multilingual dataset for ECI, called MECI. The dataset employs consistent annotation guidelines for five typologically different languages, i.e., English, Danish, Spanish, Turkish, and Urdu. Our dataset thus enable a new research direction on cross-lingual transfer learning for ECI. Our extensive experiments demonstrate high quality for MECI that can provide ample research challenges and directions for future research. We will publicly release MECI to promote research on multilingual ECI.

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Medical Question Understanding and Answering with Knowledge Grounding and Semantic Self-Supervision
Khalil Mrini | Harpreet Singh | Franck Dernoncourt | Seunghyun Yoon | Trung Bui | Walter W. Chang | Emilia Farcas | Ndapa Nakashole
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Current medical question answering systems have difficulty processing long, detailed and informally worded questions submitted by patients, called Consumer Health Questions (CHQs). To address this issue, we introduce a medical question understanding and answering system with knowledge grounding and semantic self-supervision. Our system is a pipeline that first summarizes a long, medical, user-written question, using a supervised summarization loss. Then, our system performs a two-step retrieval to return answers. The system first matches the summarized user question with an FAQ from a trusted medical knowledge base, and then retrieves a fixed number of relevant sentences from the corresponding answer document. In the absence of labels for question matching or answer relevance, we design 3 novel, self-supervised and semantically-guided losses. We evaluate our model against two strong retrieval-based question answering baselines. Evaluators ask their own questions and rate the answers retrieved by our baselines and own system according to their relevance. They find that our system retrieves more relevant answers, while achieving speeds 20 times faster. Our self-supervised losses also help the summarizer achieve higher scores in ROUGE, as well as in human evaluation metrics.

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MACRONYM: A Large-Scale Dataset for Multilingual and Multi-Domain Acronym Extraction
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Nicole Meister | Seunghyun Yoon | Rajiv Jain | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Acronym extraction is the task of identifying acronyms and their expanded forms in texts that is necessary for various NLP applications. Despite major progress for this task in recent years, one limitation of existing AE research is that they are limited to the English language and certain domains (i.e., scientific and biomedical). Challenges of AE in other languages and domains are mainly unexplored. As such, lacking annotated datasets in multiple languages and domains has been a major issue to prevent research in this direction. To address this limitation, we propose a new dataset for multilingual and multi-domain AE. Specifically, 27,200 sentences in 6 different languages and 2 new domains, i.e., legal and scientific, are manually annotated for AE. Our experiments on the dataset show that AE in different languages and learning settings has unique challenges, emphasizing the necessity of further research on multilingual and multi-domain AE.

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Offensive Content Detection via Synthetic Code-Switched Text
Cesa Salaam | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Danda Rawat | Seunghyun Yoon
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

The prevalent use of offensive content in social media has become an important reason for concern for online platforms (customer service chat-boxes, social media platforms, etc). Classifying offensive and hate-speech content in online settings is an essential task in many applications that needs to be addressed accordingly. However, online text from online platforms can contain code-switching, a combination of more than one language. The non-availability of labeled code-switched data for low-resourced code-switching combinations adds difficulty to this problem. To overcome this, we release a real-world dataset containing around 10k samples for testing for three language combinations en-fr, en-es, and en-de, and a synthetic code-switched textual dataset containing ~30k samples for training In this paper, we describe the process for gathering the human-generated data and our algorithm for creating synthetic code-switched offensive content data. We also introduce the results of a keyword classification baseline and a multi-lingual transformer-based classification model.

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Keyphrase Prediction from Video Transcripts: New Dataset and Directions
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Quan Hung Tran | Seunghyun Yoon | Varun Manjunatha | Hanieh Deilamsalehy | Rajiv Jain | Trung Bui | Walter W. Chang | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Keyphrase Prediction (KP) is an established NLP task, aiming to yield representative phrases to summarize the main content of a given document. Despite major progress in recent years, existing works on KP have mainly focused on formal texts such as scientific papers or weblogs. The challenges of KP in informal-text domains are not yet fully studied. To this end, this work studies new challenges of KP in transcripts of videos, an understudied domain for KP that involves informal texts and non-cohesive presentation styles. A bottleneck for KP research in this domain involves the lack of high-quality and large-scale annotated data that hinders the development of advanced KP models. To address this issue, we introduce a large-scale manually-annotated KP dataset in the domain of live-stream video transcripts obtained by automatic speech recognition tools. Concretely, transcripts of 500+ hours of videos streamed on the behance.net platform are manually labeled with important keyphrases. Our analysis of the dataset reveals the challenging nature of KP in transcripts. Moreover, for the first time in KP, we demonstrate the idea of improving KP for long documents (i.e., transcripts) by feeding models with paragraph-level keyphrases, i.e., hierarchical extraction. To foster future research, we will publicly release the dataset and code.

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Event Extraction in Video Transcripts
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Viet Dac Lai | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Event extraction (EE) is one of the fundamental tasks for information extraction whose goal is to identify mentions of events and their participants in text. Due to its importance, different methods and datasets have been introduced for EE. However, existing EE datasets are limited to formally written documents such as news articles or scientific papers. As such, the challenges of EE in informal and noisy texts are not adequately studied. In particular, video transcripts constitute an important domain that can benefit tremendously from EE systems (e.g., video retrieval), but has not been studied in EE literature due to the lack of necessary datasets. To address this limitation, we propose the first large-scale EE dataset obtained for transcripts of streamed videos on the video hosting platform Behance to promote future research in this area. In addition, we extensively evaluate existing state-of-the-art EE methods on our new dataset. We demonstrate that such systems cannot achieve adequate performance on the proposed dataset, revealing challenges and opportunities for further research effort.

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Generating Complement Data for Aspect Term Extraction with GPT-2
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Bonan Min | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Deep Learning for Low-Resource Natural Language Processing

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SemEval 2022 Task 12: Symlink - Linking Mathematical Symbols to their Descriptions
Viet Lai | Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen
Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2022)

We describe Symlink, a SemEval shared task of extracting mathematical symbols and their descriptions from LaTeX source of scientific documents. This is a new task in SemEval 2022, which attracted 180 individual registrations and 59 final submissions from 7 participant teams. We expect the data developed for this task and the findings reported to be valuable for the scientific knowledge extraction and automated knowledge base construction communities. The data used in this task is publicly accessible at https://github.com/nlp-oregon/symlink.

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DocTime: A Document-level Temporal Dependency Graph Parser
Puneet Mathur | Vlad Morariu | Verena Kaynig-Fittkau | Jiuxiang Gu | Franck Dernoncourt | Quan Tran | Ani Nenkova | Dinesh Manocha | Rajiv Jain
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

We introduce DocTime - a novel temporal dependency graph (TDG) parser that takes as input a text document and produces a temporal dependency graph. It outperforms previous BERT-based solutions by a relative 4-8% on three datasets from modeling the problem as a graph network with path-prediction loss to incorporate longer range dependencies. This work also demonstrates how the TDG graph can be used to improve the downstream tasks of temporal questions answering and NLI by a relative 4-10% with a new framework that incorporates the temporal dependency graph into the self-attention layer of Transformer models (Time-transformer). Finally, we develop and evaluate on a new temporal dependency graph dataset for the domain of contractual documents, which has not been previously explored in this setting.

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MINION: a Large-Scale and Diverse Dataset for Multilingual Event Detection
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Minh Van Nguyen | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Event Detection (ED) is the task of identifying and classifying trigger words of event mentions in text. Despite considerable research efforts in recent years for English text, the task of ED in other languages has been significantly less explored. Switching to non-English languages, important research questions for ED include how well existing ED models perform on different languages, how challenging ED is in other languages, and how well ED knowledge and annotation can be transferred across languages. To answer those questions, it is crucial to obtain multilingual ED datasets that provide consistent event annotation for multiple languages. There exist some multilingual ED datasets; however, they tend to cover a handful of languages and mainly focus on popular ones. Many languages are not covered in existing multilingual ED datasets. In addition, the current datasets are often small and not accessible to the public. To overcome those shortcomings, we introduce a new large-scale multilingual dataset for ED (called MINION) that consistently annotates events for 8 different languages; 5 of them have not been supported by existing multilingual datasets. We also perform extensive experiments and analysis to demonstrate the challenges and transferability of ED across languages in MINION that in all call for more research effort in this area. We will release the dataset to promote future research on multilingual ED.

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Joint Extraction of Entities, Relations, and Events via Modeling Inter-Instance and Inter-Label Dependencies
Minh Van Nguyen | Bonan Min | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Event trigger detection, entity mention recognition, event argument extraction, and relation extraction are the four important tasks in information extraction that have been performed jointly (Joint Information Extraction - JointIE) to avoid error propagation and leverage dependencies between the task instances (i.e., event triggers, entity mentions, relations, and event arguments). However, previous JointIE models often assume heuristic manually-designed dependency between the task instances and mean-field factorization for the joint distribution of instance labels, thus unable to capture optimal dependencies among instances and labels to improve representation learning and IE performance. To overcome these limitations, we propose to induce a dependency graph among task instances from data to boost representation learning. To better capture dependencies between instance labels, we propose to directly estimate their joint distribution via Conditional Random Fields. Noise Contrastive Estimation is introduced to address the maximization of the intractable joint likelihood for model training. Finally, to improve the decoding with greedy or beam search in prior work, we present Simulated Annealing to better find the globally optimal assignment for instance labels at decoding time. Experimental results show that our proposed model outperforms previous models on multiple IE tasks across 5 datasets and 2 languages.

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Proceedings of the First Workshop On Transcript Understanding
Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen | Viet Dac Lai | Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Trung H. Bui | David Seunghyun Yoon
Proceedings of the First Workshop On Transcript Understanding

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BehanceMT: A Machine Translation Corpus for Livestreaming Video Transcripts
Minh Van Nguyen | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Nguyen
Proceedings of the First Workshop On Transcript Understanding

Machine translation (MT) is an important task in natural language processing, which aims to translate a sentence in a source language to another sentence with the same/similar semantics in a target language. Despite the huge effort on building MT systems for different language pairs, most previous work focuses on formal-language settings, where text to be translated come from written sources such as books and news articles. As a result, such MT systems could fail to translate livestreaming video transcripts, where text is often shorter and might be grammatically incorrect. To overcome this issue, we introduce a novel MT corpus - BehanceMT for livestreaming video transcript translation. Our corpus contains parallel transcripts for 3 language pairs, where English is the source language and Spanish, Chinese, and Arabic are the target languages. Experimental results show that finetuning a pretrained MT model on BehanceMT significantly improves the performance of the model in translating video transcripts across 3 language pairs. In addition, the finetuned MT model outperforms GoogleTranslate in 2 out of 3 language pairs, further demonstrating the usefulness of our proposed dataset for video transcript translation. BehanceMT will be publicly released upon the acceptance of the paper.

2021

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Learning Prototype Representations Across Few-Shot Tasks for Event Detection
Viet Lai | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We address the sampling bias and outlier issues in few-shot learning for event detection, a subtask of information extraction. We propose to model the relations between training tasks in episodic few-shot learning by introducing cross-task prototypes. We further propose to enforce prediction consistency among classifiers across tasks to make the model more robust to outliers. Our extensive experiment shows a consistent improvement on three few-shot learning datasets. The findings suggest that our model is more robust when labeled data of novel event types is limited. The source code is available at http://github.com/laiviet/fsl-proact.

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IGA: An Intent-Guided Authoring Assistant
Simeng Sun | Wenlong Zhao | Varun Manjunatha | Rajiv Jain | Vlad Morariu | Franck Dernoncourt | Balaji Vasan Srinivasan | Mohit Iyyer
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

While large-scale pretrained language models have significantly improved writing assistance functionalities such as autocomplete, more complex and controllable writing assistants have yet to be explored. We leverage advances in language modeling to build an interactive writing assistant that generates and rephrases text according to fine-grained author specifications. Users provide input to our Intent-Guided Assistant (IGA) in the form of text interspersed with tags that correspond to specific rhetorical directives (e.g., adding description or contrast, or rephrasing a particular sentence). We fine-tune a language model on a dataset heuristically-labeled with author intent, which allows IGA to fill in these tags with generated text that users can subsequently edit to their liking. A series of automatic and crowdsourced evaluations confirm the quality of IGA’s generated outputs, while a small-scale user study demonstrates author preference for IGA over baseline methods in a creative writing task. We release our dataset, code, and demo to spur further research into AI-assisted writing.

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StreamHover: Livestream Transcript Summarization and Annotation
Sangwoo Cho | Franck Dernoncourt | Tim Ganter | Trung Bui | Nedim Lipka | Walter Chang | Hailin Jin | Jonathan Brandt | Hassan Foroosh | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

With the explosive growth of livestream broadcasting, there is an urgent need for new summarization technology that enables us to create a preview of streamed content and tap into this wealth of knowledge. However, the problem is nontrivial due to the informal nature of spoken language. Further, there has been a shortage of annotated datasets that are necessary for transcript summarization. In this paper, we present StreamHover, a framework for annotating and summarizing livestream transcripts. With a total of over 500 hours of videos annotated with both extractive and abstractive summaries, our benchmark dataset is significantly larger than currently existing annotated corpora. We explore a neural extractive summarization model that leverages vector-quantized variational autoencoder to learn latent vector representations of spoken utterances and identify salient utterances from the transcripts to form summaries. We show that our model generalizes better and improves performance over strong baselines. The results of this study provide an avenue for future research to improve summarization solutions for efficient browsing of livestreams.

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TLDR9+: A Large Scale Resource for Extreme Summarization of Social Media Posts
Sajad Sotudeh | Hanieh Deilamsalehy | Franck Dernoncourt | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on New Frontiers in Summarization

Recent models in developing summarization systems consist of millions of parameters and the model performance is highly dependent on the abundance of training data. While most existing summarization corpora contain data in the order of thousands to one million, generation of large-scale summarization datasets in order of couple of millions is yet to be explored. Practically, more data is better at generalizing the training patterns to unseen data. In this paper, we introduce TLDR9+ –a large-scale summarization dataset– containing over 9 million training instances extracted from Reddit discussion forum ([HTTP]). This dataset is specifically gathered to perform extreme summarization (i.e., generating one-sentence summary in high compression and abstraction) and is more than twice larger than the previously proposed dataset. We go one step further and with the help of human annotations, we distill a more fine-grained dataset by sampling High-Quality instances from TLDR9+ and call it TLDRHQ dataset. We further pinpoint different state-of-the-art summarization models on our proposed datasets.

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Joint Summarization-Entailment Optimization for Consumer Health Question Understanding
Khalil Mrini | Franck Dernoncourt | Walter Chang | Emilia Farcas | Ndapa Nakashole
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Medical Conversations

Understanding the intent of medical questions asked by patients, or Consumer Health Questions, is an essential skill for medical Conversational AI systems. We propose a novel data-augmented and simple joint learning approach combining question summarization and Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE) in the medical domain. Our data augmentation approach enables to use just one dataset for joint learning. We show improvements on both tasks across four biomedical datasets in accuracy (+8%), ROUGE-1 (+2.5%) and human evaluation scores. Human evaluation shows joint learning generates faithful and informative summaries. Finally, we release our code, the two question summarization datasets extracted from a large-scale medical dialogue dataset, as well as our augmented datasets.

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Exploring Conditional Text Generation for Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis
Siva Uday Sampreeth Chebolu | Franck Dernoncourt | Nedim Lipka | Thamar Solorio
Proceedings of the 35th Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

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PSED: A Dataset for Selecting Emphasis in Presentation Slides
Amirreza Shirani | Giai Tran | Hieu Trinh | Franck Dernoncourt | Nedim Lipka | Jose Echevarria | Thamar Solorio | Paul Asente
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021

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QACE: Asking Questions to Evaluate an Image Caption
Hwanhee Lee | Thomas Scialom | Seunghyun Yoon | Franck Dernoncourt | Kyomin Jung
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

In this paper we propose QACE, a new metric based on Question Answering for Caption Evaluation to evaluate image captioning based on Question Generation(QG) and Question Answering(QA) systems. QACE generates questions on the evaluated caption and check its content by asking the questions on either the reference caption or the source image. We first develop QACE_Ref that compares the answers of the evaluated caption to its reference, and report competitive results with the state-of-the-art metrics. To go further, we propose QACE_Img, that asks the questions directly on the image, instead of reference. A Visual-QA system is necessary for QACE_Img. Unfortunately, the standard VQA models are actually framed a classification among only few thousands categories. Instead, we propose Visual-T5, an abstractive VQA system. The resulting metric, QACE_Img is multi-modal, reference-less and explainable. Our experiments show that QACE_Img compares favorably w.r.t. other reference-less metrics.

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A Gradually Soft Multi-Task and Data-Augmented Approach to Medical Question Understanding
Khalil Mrini | Franck Dernoncourt | Seunghyun Yoon | Trung Bui | Walter Chang | Emilia Farcas | Ndapa Nakashole
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Users of medical question answering systems often submit long and detailed questions, making it hard to achieve high recall in answer retrieval. To alleviate this problem, we propose a novel Multi-Task Learning (MTL) method with data augmentation for medical question understanding. We first establish an equivalence between the tasks of question summarization and Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE) using their definitions in the medical domain. Based on this equivalence, we propose a data augmentation algorithm to use just one dataset to optimize for both tasks, with a weighted MTL loss. We introduce gradually soft parameter-sharing: a constraint for decoder parameters to be close, that is gradually loosened as we move to the highest layer. We show through ablation studies that our proposed novelties improve performance. Our method outperforms existing MTL methods across 4 datasets of medical question pairs, in ROUGE scores, RQE accuracy and human evaluation. Finally, we show that our method fares better than single-task learning under 4 low-resource settings.

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Syntopical Graphs for Computational Argumentation Tasks
Joe Barrow | Rajiv Jain | Nedim Lipka | Franck Dernoncourt | Vlad Morariu | Varun Manjunatha | Douglas Oard | Philip Resnik | Henning Wachsmuth
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Approaches to computational argumentation tasks such as stance detection and aspect detection have largely focused on the text of independent claims, losing out on potentially valuable context provided by the rest of the collection. We introduce a general approach to these tasks motivated by syntopical reading, a reading process that emphasizes comparing and contrasting viewpoints in order to improve topic understanding. To capture collection-level context, we introduce the syntopical graph, a data structure for linking claims within a collection. A syntopical graph is a typed multi-graph where nodes represent claims and edges represent different possible pairwise relationships, such as entailment, paraphrase, or support. Experiments applying syntopical graphs to the problems of detecting stance and aspects demonstrate state-of-the-art performance in each domain, significantly outperforming approaches that do not utilize collection-level information.

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Unleash GPT-2 Power for Event Detection
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Viet Lai | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Event Detection (ED) aims to recognize mentions of events (i.e., event triggers) and their types in text. Recently, several ED datasets in various domains have been proposed. However, the major limitation of these resources is the lack of enough training data for individual event types which hinders the efficient training of data-hungry deep learning models. To overcome this issue, we propose to exploit the powerful pre-trained language model GPT-2 to generate training samples for ED. To prevent the noises inevitable in automatically generated data from hampering training process, we propose to exploit a teacher-student architecture in which the teacher is supposed to learn anchor knowledge from the original data. The student is then trained on combination of the original and GPT-generated data while being led by the anchor knowledge from the teacher. Optimal transport is introduced to facilitate the anchor knowledge-based guidance between the two networks. We evaluate the proposed model on multiple ED benchmark datasets, gaining consistent improvement and establishing state-of-the-art results for ED.

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UMIC: An Unreferenced Metric for Image Captioning via Contrastive Learning
Hwanhee Lee | Seunghyun Yoon | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Kyomin Jung
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Despite the success of various text generation metrics such as BERTScore, it is still difficult to evaluate the image captions without enough reference captions due to the diversity of the descriptions. In this paper, we introduce a new metric UMIC, an Unreferenced Metric for Image Captioning which does not require reference captions to evaluate image captions. Based on Vision-and-Language BERT, we train UMIC to discriminate negative captions via contrastive learning. Also, we observe critical problems of the previous benchmark dataset (i.e., human annotations) on image captioning metric, and introduce a new collection of human annotations on the generated captions. We validate UMIC on four datasets, including our new dataset, and show that UMIC has a higher correlation than all previous metrics that require multiple references.

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TIMERS: Document-level Temporal Relation Extraction
Puneet Mathur | Rajiv Jain | Franck Dernoncourt | Vlad Morariu | Quan Hung Tran | Dinesh Manocha
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

We present TIMERS - a TIME, Rhetorical and Syntactic-aware model for document-level temporal relation classification in the English language. Our proposed method leverages rhetorical discourse features and temporal arguments from semantic role labels, in addition to traditional local syntactic features, trained through a Gated Relational-GCN. Extensive experiments show that the proposed model outperforms previous methods by 5-18% on the TDDiscourse, TimeBank-Dense, and MATRES datasets due to our discourse-level modeling.

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DPR at SemEval-2021 Task 8: Dynamic Path Reasoning for Measurement Relation Extraction
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2021)

Scientific documents are replete with measurements mentioned in various formats and styles. As such, in a document with multiple quantities and measured entities, the task of associating each quantity to its corresponding measured entity is challenging. Thus, it is necessary to have a method to efficiently extract all measurements and attributes related to them. To this end, in this paper, we propose a novel model for the task of measurement relation extraction (MRE) whose goal is to recognize the relation between measured entities, quantities, and conditions mentioned in a document. Our model employs a deep translation-based architecture to dynamically induce the important words in the document to classify the relation between a pair of entities. Furthermore, we introduce a novel regularization technique based on Information Bottleneck (IB) to filter out the noisy information from the induced set of important words. Our experiments on the recent SemEval 2021 Task 8 datasets reveal the effectiveness of the proposed model.

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MadDog: A Web-based System for Acronym Identification and Disambiguation
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Walter Chang | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Acronyms and abbreviations are the short-form of longer phrases and they are ubiquitously employed in various types of writing. Despite their usefulness to save space in writing and reader’s time in reading, they also provide challenges for understanding the text especially if the acronym is not defined in the text or if it is used far from its definition in long texts. To alleviate this issue, there are considerable efforts both from the research community and software developers to build systems for identifying acronyms and finding their correct meanings in the text. However, none of the existing works provide a unified solution capable of processing acronyms in various domains and to be publicly available. Thus, we provide the first web-based acronym identification and disambiguation system which can process acronyms from various domains including scientific, biomedical, and general domains. The web-based system is publicly available at http://iq.cs.uoregon.edu:5000 and a demo video is available at https://youtu.be/IkSh7LqI42M. The system source code is also available at https://github.com/amirveyseh/MadDog.

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Towards Interpreting and Mitigating Shortcut Learning Behavior of NLU models
Mengnan Du | Varun Manjunatha | Rajiv Jain | Ruchi Deshpande | Franck Dernoncourt | Jiuxiang Gu | Tong Sun | Xia Hu
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Recent studies indicate that NLU models are prone to rely on shortcut features for prediction, without achieving true language understanding. As a result, these models fail to generalize to real-world out-of-distribution data. In this work, we show that the words in the NLU training set can be modeled as a long-tailed distribution. There are two findings: 1) NLU models have strong preference for features located at the head of the long-tailed distribution, and 2) Shortcut features are picked up during very early few iterations of the model training. These two observations are further employed to formulate a measurement which can quantify the shortcut degree of each training sample. Based on this shortcut measurement, we propose a shortcut mitigation framework LGTR, to suppress the model from making overconfident predictions for samples with large shortcut degree. Experimental results on three NLU benchmarks demonstrate that our long-tailed distribution explanation accurately reflects the shortcut learning behavior of NLU models. Experimental analysis further indicates that LGTR can improve the generalization accuracy on OOD data, while preserving the accuracy on in-distribution data.

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KPQA: A Metric for Generative Question Answering Using Keyphrase Weights
Hwanhee Lee | Seunghyun Yoon | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Trung Bui | Joongbo Shin | Kyomin Jung
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

In the automatic evaluation of generative question answering (GenQA) systems, it is difficult to assess the correctness of generated answers due to the free-form of the answer. Especially, widely used n-gram similarity metrics often fail to discriminate the incorrect answers since they equally consider all of the tokens. To alleviate this problem, we propose KPQA metric, a new metric for evaluating the correctness of GenQA. Specifically, our new metric assigns different weights to each token via keyphrase prediction, thereby judging whether a generated answer sentence captures the key meaning of the reference answer. To evaluate our metric, we create high-quality human judgments of correctness on two GenQA datasets. Using our human-evaluation datasets, we show that our proposed metric has a significantly higher correlation with human judgments than existing metrics in various datasets. Code for KPQA-metric will be available at https://github.com/hwanheelee1993/KPQA.

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A Context-Dependent Gated Module for Incorporating Symbolic Semantics into Event Coreference Resolution
Tuan Lai | Heng Ji | Trung Bui | Quan Hung Tran | Franck Dernoncourt | Walter Chang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Event coreference resolution is an important research problem with many applications. Despite the recent remarkable success of pre-trained language models, we argue that it is still highly beneficial to utilize symbolic features for the task. However, as the input for coreference resolution typically comes from upstream components in the information extraction pipeline, the automatically extracted symbolic features can be noisy and contain errors. Also, depending on the specific context, some features can be more informative than others. Motivated by these observations, we propose a novel context-dependent gated module to adaptively control the information flows from the input symbolic features. Combined with a simple noisy training method, our best models achieve state-of-the-art results on two datasets: ACE 2005 and KBP 2016.

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X-METRA-ADA: Cross-lingual Meta-Transfer learning Adaptation to Natural Language Understanding and Question Answering
Meryem M’hamdi | Doo Soon Kim | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Xiang Ren | Jonathan May
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Multilingual models, such as M-BERT and XLM-R, have gained increasing popularity, due to their zero-shot cross-lingual transfer learning capabilities. However, their generalization ability is still inconsistent for typologically diverse languages and across different benchmarks. Recently, meta-learning has garnered attention as a promising technique for enhancing transfer learning under low-resource scenarios: particularly for cross-lingual transfer in Natural Language Understanding (NLU). In this work, we propose X-METRA-ADA, a cross-lingual MEta-TRAnsfer learning ADAptation approach for NLU. Our approach adapts MAML, an optimization-based meta-learning approach, to learn to adapt to new languages. We extensively evaluate our framework on two challenging cross-lingual NLU tasks: multilingual task-oriented dialog and typologically diverse question answering. We show that our approach outperforms naive fine-tuning, reaching competitive performance on both tasks for most languages. Our analysis reveals that X-METRA-ADA can leverage limited data for faster adaptation.

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Open-Domain Question Answering with Pre-Constructed Question Spaces
Jinfeng Xiao | Lidan Wang | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Tong Sun | Jiawei Han
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Open-domain question answering aims at locating the answers to user-generated questions in massive collections of documents. Retriever-readers and knowledge graph approaches are two big families of solutions to this task. A retriever-reader first applies information retrieval techniques to locate a few passages that are likely to be relevant, and then feeds the retrieved text to a neural network reader to extract the answer. Alternatively, knowledge graphs can be constructed and queried to answer users’ questions. We propose an algorithm with a novel reader-retriever design that differs from both families. Our reader-retriever first uses an offline reader to read the corpus and generate collections of all answerable questions associated with their answers, and then uses an online retriever to respond to user queries by searching the pre-constructed question spaces for answers that are most likely to be asked in the given way. We further combine one retriever-reader and two reader-retrievers into a hybrid model called R6 for the best performance. Experiments with two large-scale public datasets show that R6 achieves state-of-the-art accuracy.

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UCSD-Adobe at MEDIQA 2021: Transfer Learning and Answer Sentence Selection for Medical Summarization
Khalil Mrini | Franck Dernoncourt | Seunghyun Yoon | Trung Bui | Walter Chang | Emilia Farcas | Ndapa Nakashole
Proceedings of the 20th Workshop on Biomedical Language Processing

In this paper, we describe our approach to question summarization and multi-answer summarization in the context of the 2021 MEDIQA shared task (Ben Abacha et al., 2021). We propose two kinds of transfer learning for the abstractive summarization of medical questions. First, we train on HealthCareMagic, a large question summarization dataset collected from an online healthcare service platform. Second, we leverage the ability of the BART encoder-decoder architecture to model both generation and classification tasks to train on the task of Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE) in the medical domain. We show that both transfer learning methods combined achieve the highest ROUGE scores. Finally, we cast the question-driven extractive summarization of multiple relevant answer documents as an Answer Sentence Selection (AS2) problem. We show how we can preprocess the MEDIQA-AnS dataset such that it can be trained in an AS2 setting. Our AS2 model is able to generate extractive summaries achieving high ROUGE scores.

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User Factor Adaptation for User Embedding via Multitask Learning
Xiaolei Huang | Michael J. Paul | Franck Dernoncourt | Robin Burke | Mark Dredze
Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Domain Adaptation for NLP

Language varies across users and their interested fields in social media data: words authored by a user across his/her interests may have different meanings (e.g., cool) or sentiments (e.g., fast). However, most of the existing methods to train user embeddings ignore the variations across user interests, such as product and movie categories (e.g., drama vs. action). In this study, we treat the user interest as domains and empirically examine how the user language can vary across the user factor in three English social media datasets. We then propose a user embedding model to account for the language variability of user interests via a multitask learning framework. The model learns user language and its variations without human supervision. While existing work mainly evaluated the user embedding by extrinsic tasks, we propose an intrinsic evaluation via clustering and evaluate user embeddings by an extrinsic task, text classification. The experiments on the three English-language social media datasets show that our proposed approach can generally outperform baselines via adapting the user factor.

2020

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Exploiting the Syntax-Model Consistency for Neural Relation Extraction
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Dejing Dou | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

This paper studies the task of Relation Extraction (RE) that aims to identify the semantic relations between two entity mentions in text. In the deep learning models for RE, it has been beneficial to incorporate the syntactic structures from the dependency trees of the input sentences. In such models, the dependency trees are often used to directly structure the network architectures or to obtain the dependency relations between the word pairs to inject the syntactic information into the models via multi-task learning. The major problem with these approaches is the lack of generalization beyond the syntactic structures in the training data or the failure to capture the syntactic importance of the words for RE. In order to overcome these issues, we propose a novel deep learning model for RE that uses the dependency trees to extract the syntax-based importance scores for the words, serving as a tree representation to introduce syntactic information into the models with greater generalization. In particular, we leverage Ordered-Neuron Long-Short Term Memory Networks (ON-LSTM) to infer the model-based importance scores for RE for every word in the sentences that are then regulated to be consistent with the syntax-based scores to enable syntactic information injection. We perform extensive experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, leading to the state-of-the-art performance on three RE benchmark datasets.

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Let Me Choose: From Verbal Context to Font Selection
Amirreza Shirani | Franck Dernoncourt | Jose Echevarria | Paul Asente | Nedim Lipka | Thamar Solorio
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In this paper, we aim to learn associations between visual attributes of fonts and the verbal context of the texts they are typically applied to. Compared to related work leveraging the surrounding visual context, we choose to focus only on the input text, which can enable new applications for which the text is the only visual element in the document. We introduce a new dataset, containing examples of different topics in social media posts and ads, labeled through crowd-sourcing. Due to the subjective nature of the task, multiple fonts might be perceived as acceptable for an input text, which makes this problem challenging. To this end, we investigate different end-to-end models to learn label distributions on crowd-sourced data, to capture inter-subjectivity across all annotations.

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Understanding Points of Correspondence between Sentences for Abstractive Summarization
Logan Lebanoff | John Muchovej | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Lidan Wang | Walter Chang | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Fusing sentences containing disparate content is a remarkable human ability that helps create informative and succinct summaries. Such a simple task for humans has remained challenging for modern abstractive summarizers, substantially restricting their applicability in real-world scenarios. In this paper, we present an investigation into fusing sentences drawn from a document by introducing the notion of points of correspondence, which are cohesive devices that tie any two sentences together into a coherent text. The types of points of correspondence are delineated by text cohesion theory, covering pronominal and nominal referencing, repetition and beyond. We create a dataset containing the documents, source and fusion sentences, and human annotations of points of correspondence between sentences. Our dataset bridges the gap between coreference resolution and summarization. It is publicly shared to serve as a basis for future work to measure the success of sentence fusion systems.

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A Corpus for Detecting High-Context Medical Conditions in Intensive Care Patient Notes Focusing on Frequently Readmitted Patients
Edward T. Moseley | Joy T. Wu | Jonathan Welt | John Foote | Patrick D. Tyler | David W. Grant | Eric T. Carlson | Sebastian Gehrmann | Franck Dernoncourt | Leo Anthony Celi
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

A crucial step within secondary analysis of electronic health records (EHRs) is to identify the patient cohort under investigation. While EHRs contain medical billing codes that aim to represent the conditions and treatments patients may have, much of the information is only present in the patient notes. Therefore, it is critical to develop robust algorithms to infer patients’ conditions and treatments from their written notes. In this paper, we introduce a dataset for patient phenotyping, a task that is defined as the identification of whether a patient has a given medical condition (also referred to as clinical indication or phenotype) based on their patient note. Nursing Progress Notes and Discharge Summaries from the Intensive Care Unit of a large tertiary care hospital were manually annotated for the presence of several high-context phenotypes relevant to treatment and risk of re-hospitalization. This dataset contains 1102 Discharge Summaries and 1000 Nursing Progress Notes. Each Discharge Summary and Progress Note has been annotated by at least two expert human annotators (one clinical researcher and one resident physician). Annotated phenotypes include treatment non-adherence, chronic pain, advanced/metastatic cancer, as well as 10 other phenotypes. This dataset can be utilized for academic and industrial research in medicine and computer science, particularly within the field of medical natural language processing.

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Multilingual Twitter Corpus and Baselines for Evaluating Demographic Bias in Hate Speech Recognition
Xiaolei Huang | Linzi Xing | Franck Dernoncourt | Michael J. Paul
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Existing research on fairness evaluation of document classification models mainly uses synthetic monolingual data without ground truth for author demographic attributes. In this work, we assemble and publish a multilingual Twitter corpus for the task of hate speech detection with inferred four author demographic factors: age, country, gender and race/ethnicity. The corpus covers five languages: English, Italian, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. We evaluate the inferred demographic labels with a crowdsourcing platform, Figure Eight. To examine factors that can cause biases, we take an empirical analysis of demographic predictability on the English corpus. We measure the performance of four popular document classifiers and evaluate the fairness and bias of the baseline classifiers on the author-level demographic attributes.

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Propagate-Selector: Detecting Supporting Sentences for Question Answering via Graph Neural Networks
Seunghyun Yoon | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Trung Bui | Kyomin Jung
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In this study, we propose a novel graph neural network called propagate-selector (PS), which propagates information over sentences to understand information that cannot be inferred when considering sentences in isolation. First, we design a graph structure in which each node represents an individual sentence, and some pairs of nodes are selectively connected based on the text structure. Then, we develop an iterative attentive aggregation and a skip-combine method in which a node interacts with its neighborhood nodes to accumulate the necessary information. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approaches, we conduct experiments with the standard HotpotQA dataset. The empirical results demonstrate the superiority of our proposed approach, which obtains the best performances, compared to the widely used answer-selection models that do not consider the intersentential relationship.

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TutorialVQA: Question Answering Dataset for Tutorial Videos
Anthony Colas | Seokhwan Kim | Franck Dernoncourt | Siddhesh Gupte | Zhe Wang | Doo Soon Kim
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Despite the number of currently available datasets on video-question answering, there still remains a need for a dataset involving multi-step and non-factoid answers. Moreover, relying on video transcripts remains an under-explored topic. To adequately address this, we propose a new question answering task on instructional videos, because of their verbose and narrative nature. While previous studies on video question answering have focused on generating a short text as an answer, given a question and video clip, our task aims to identify a span of a video segment as an answer which contains instructional details with various granularities. This work focuses on screencast tutorial videos pertaining to an image editing program. We introduce a dataset, TutorialVQA, consisting of about 6,000 manually collected triples of (video, question, answer span). We also provide experimental results with several baseline algorithms using the video transcripts. The results indicate that the task is challenging and call for the investigation of new algorithms.

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SemEval-2020 Task 6: Definition Extraction from Free Text with the DEFT Corpus
Sasha Spala | Nicholas Miller | Franck Dernoncourt | Carl Dockhorn
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Research on definition extraction has been conducted for well over a decade, largely with significant constraints on the type of definitions considered. In this work, we present DeftEval, a SemEval shared task in which participants must extract definitions from free text using a term-definition pair corpus that reflects the complex reality of definitions in natural language. Definitions and glosses in free text often appear without explicit indicators, across sentences boundaries, or in an otherwise complex linguistic manner. DeftEval involved 3 distinct subtasks: 1) Sentence classification, 2) sequence labeling, and 3) relation extraction.

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SemEval-2020 Task 10: Emphasis Selection for Written Text in Visual Media
Amirreza Shirani | Franck Dernoncourt | Nedim Lipka | Paul Asente | Jose Echevarria | Thamar Solorio
Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

In this paper, we present the main findings and compare the results of SemEval-2020 Task 10, Emphasis Selection for Written Text in Visual Media. The goal of this shared task is to design automatic methods for emphasis selection, i.e. choosing candidates for emphasis in textual content to enable automated design assistance in authoring. The main focus is on short text instances for social media, with a variety of examples, from social media posts to inspirational quotes. Participants were asked to model emphasis using plain text with no additional context from the user or other design considerations. SemEval-2020 Emphasis Selection shared task attracted 197 participants in the early phase and a total of 31 teams made submissions to this task. The highest-ranked submission achieved 0.823 Matchm score. The analysis of systems submitted to the task indicates that BERT and RoBERTa were the most common choice of pre-trained models used, and part of speech tag (POS) was the most useful feature. Full results can be found on the task’s website.

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What Does This Acronym Mean? Introducing a New Dataset for Acronym Identification and Disambiguation
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Quan Hung Tran | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Acronyms are the short forms of phrases that facilitate conveying lengthy sentences in documents and serve as one of the mainstays of writing. Due to their importance, identifying acronyms and corresponding phrases (i.e., acronym identification (AI)) and finding the correct meaning of each acronym (i.e., acronym disambiguation (AD)) are crucial for text understanding. Despite the recent progress on this task, there are some limitations in the existing datasets which hinder further improvement. More specifically, limited size of manually annotated AI datasets or noises in the automatically created acronym identification datasets obstruct designing advanced high-performing acronym identification models. Moreover, the existing datasets are mostly limited to the medical domain and ignore other domains. In order to address these two limitations, we first create a manually annotated large AI dataset for scientific domain. This dataset contains 17,506 sentences which is substantially larger than previous scientific AI datasets. Next, we prepare an AD dataset for scientific domain with 62,441 samples which is significantly larger than previous scientific AD dataset. Our experiments show that the existing state-of-the-art models fall far behind human-level performance on both datasets proposed by this work. In addition, we propose a new deep learning model which utilizes the syntactical structure of the sentence to expand an ambiguous acronym in a sentence. The proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art models on the new AD dataset, providing a strong baseline for future research on this dataset.

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Explain by Evidence: An Explainable Memory-based Neural Network for Question Answering
Quan Hung Tran | Nhan Dam | Tuan Lai | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Le | Nham Le | Dinh Phung
Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Interpretability and explainability of deep neural net models are always challenging due to their size and complexity. Many previous works focused on visualizing internal components of neural networks to represent them through human-friendly concepts. On the other hand, in real life, when making a decision, human tends to rely on similar situations in the past. Thus, we argue that one potential approach to make the model interpretable and explainable is to design it in a way such that the model explicitly connects the current sample with the seen samples, and bases its decision on these samples. In this work, we design one such model: an explainable, evidence-based memory network architecture, which learns to summarize the dataset and extract supporting evidences to make its decision. The model achieves state-of-the-art performance on two popular question answering datasets, the TrecQA dataset and the WikiQA dataset. Via further analysis, we showed that this model can reliably trace the errors it has made in the validation step to the training instances that might have caused this error. We believe that this error-tracing capability might be beneficial in improving dataset quality in many applications.

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Rethinking Self-Attention: Towards Interpretability in Neural Parsing
Khalil Mrini | Franck Dernoncourt | Quan Hung Tran | Trung Bui | Walter Chang | Ndapa Nakashole
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Attention mechanisms have improved the performance of NLP tasks while allowing models to remain explainable. Self-attention is currently widely used, however interpretability is difficult due to the numerous attention distributions. Recent work has shown that model representations can benefit from label-specific information, while facilitating interpretation of predictions. We introduce the Label Attention Layer: a new form of self-attention where attention heads represent labels. We test our novel layer by running constituency and dependency parsing experiments and show our new model obtains new state-of-the-art results for both tasks on both the Penn Treebank (PTB) and Chinese Treebank. Additionally, our model requires fewer self-attention layers compared to existing work. Finally, we find that the Label Attention heads learn relations between syntactic categories and show pathways to analyze errors.

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Scene Graph Modification Based on Natural Language Commands
Xuanli He | Quan Hung Tran | Gholamreza Haffari | Walter Chang | Zhe Lin | Trung Bui | Franck Dernoncourt | Nhan Dam
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Structured representations like graphs and parse trees play a crucial role in many Natural Language Processing systems. In recent years, the advancements in multi-turn user interfaces necessitate the need for controlling and updating these structured representations given new sources of information. Although there have been many efforts focusing on improving the performance of the parsers that map text to graphs or parse trees, very few have explored the problem of directly manipulating these representations. In this paper, we explore the novel problem of graph modification, where the systems need to learn how to update an existing scene graph given a new user’s command. Our novel models based on graph-based sparse transformer and cross attention information fusion outperform previous systems adapted from the machine translation and graph generation literature. We further contribute our large graph modification datasets to the research community to encourage future research for this new problem.

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Using Visual Feature Space as a Pivot Across Languages
Ziyan Yang | Leticia Pinto-Alva | Franck Dernoncourt | Vicente Ordonez
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Our work aims to leverage visual feature space to pass information across languages. We show that models trained to generate textual captions in more than one language conditioned on an input image can leverage their jointly trained feature space during inference to pivot across languages. We particularly demonstrate improved quality on a caption generated from an input image, by leveraging a caption in a second language. More importantly, we demonstrate that even without conditioning on any visual input, the model demonstrates to have learned implicitly to perform to some extent machine translation from one language to another in their shared visual feature space. We show results in German-English, and Japanese-English language pairs that pave the way for using the visual world to learn a common representation for language.

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Improving Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis with Gated Graph Convolutional Networks and Syntax-based Regulation
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Nasim Nouri | Franck Dernoncourt | Quan Hung Tran | Dejing Dou | Thien Huu Nguyen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (ABSA) seeks to predict the sentiment polarity of a sentence toward a specific aspect. Recently, it has been shown that dependency trees can be integrated into deep learning models to produce the state-of-the-art performance for ABSA. However, these models tend to compute the hidden/representation vectors without considering the aspect terms and fail to benefit from the overall contextual importance scores of the words that can be obtained from the dependency tree for ABSA. In this work, we propose a novel graph-based deep learning model to overcome these two issues of the prior work on ABSA. In our model, gate vectors are generated from the representation vectors of the aspect terms to customize the hidden vectors of the graph-based models toward the aspect terms. In addition, we propose a mechanism to obtain the importance scores for each word in the sentences based on the dependency trees that are then injected into the model to improve the representation vectors for ABSA. The proposed model achieves the state-of-the-art performance on three benchmark datasets.

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Variational Hierarchical Dialog Autoencoder for Dialog State Tracking Data Augmentation
Kang Min Yoo | Hanbit Lee | Franck Dernoncourt | Trung Bui | Walter Chang | Sang-goo Lee
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Recent works have shown that generative data augmentation, where synthetic samples generated from deep generative models complement the training dataset, benefit NLP tasks. In this work, we extend this approach to the task of dialog state tracking for goaloriented dialogs. Due to the inherent hierarchical structure of goal-oriented dialogs over utterances and related annotations, the deep generative model must be capable of capturing the coherence among different hierarchies and types of dialog features. We propose the Variational Hierarchical Dialog Autoencoder (VHDA) for modeling the complete aspects of goal-oriented dialogs, including linguistic features and underlying structured annotations, namely speaker information, dialog acts, and goals. The proposed architecture is designed to model each aspect of goal-oriented dialogs using inter-connected latent variables and learns to generate coherent goal-oriented dialogs from the latent spaces. To overcome training issues that arise from training complex variational models, we propose appropriate training strategies. Experiments on various dialog datasets show that our model improves the downstream dialog trackers’ robustness via generative data augmentation. We also discover additional benefits of our unified approach to modeling goal-oriented dialogs – dialog response generation and user simulation, where our model outperforms previous strong baselines.

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Learning to Fuse Sentences with Transformers for Summarization
Logan Lebanoff | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Lidan Wang | Walter Chang | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

The ability to fuse sentences is highly attractive for summarization systems because it is an essential step to produce succinct abstracts. However, to date, summarizers can fail on fusing sentences. They tend to produce few summary sentences by fusion or generate incorrect fusions that lead the summary to fail to retain the original meaning. In this paper, we explore the ability of Transformers to fuse sentences and propose novel algorithms to enhance their ability to perform sentence fusion by leveraging the knowledge of points of correspondence between sentences. Through extensive experiments, we investigate the effects of different design choices on Transformer’s performance. Our findings highlight the importance of modeling points of correspondence between sentences for effective sentence fusion.

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Introducing Syntactic Structures into Target Opinion Word Extraction with Deep Learning
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Nasim Nouri | Franck Dernoncourt | Dejing Dou | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Targeted opinion word extraction (TOWE) is a sub-task of aspect based sentiment analysis (ABSA) which aims to find the opinion words for a given aspect-term in a sentence. Despite their success for TOWE, the current deep learning models fail to exploit the syntactic information of the sentences that have been proved to be useful for TOWE in the prior research. In this work, we propose to incorporate the syntactic structures of the sentences into the deep learning models for TOWE, leveraging the syntax-based opinion possibility scores and the syntactic connections between the words. We also introduce a novel regularization technique to improve the performance of the deep learning models based on the representation distinctions between the words in TOWE. The proposed model is extensively analyzed and achieves the state-of-the-art performance on four benchmark datasets.

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Extensively Matching for Few-shot Learning Event Detection
Viet Dac Lai | Thien Huu Nguyen | Franck Dernoncourt
Proceedings of the First Joint Workshop on Narrative Understanding, Storylines, and Events

Current event detection models under supervised learning settings fail to transfer to new event types. Few-shot learning has not been explored in event detection even though it allows a model to perform well with high generalization on new event types. In this work, we formulate event detection as a few-shot learning problem to enable to extend event detection to new event types. We propose two novel loss factors that matching examples in the support set to provide more training signals to the model. Moreover, these training signals can be applied in many metric-based few-shot learning models. Our extensive experiments on the ACE-2005 dataset (under a few-shot learning setting) show that the proposed method can improve the performance of few-shot learning.

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Improving Slot Filling by Utilizing Contextual Information
Amir Pouran Ben Veyseh | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Slot Filling (SF) is one of the sub-tasks of Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) which aims to extract semantic constituents from a given natural language utterance. It is formulated as a sequence labeling task. Recently, it has been shown that contextual information is vital for this task. However, existing models employ contextual information in a restricted manner, e.g., using self-attention. Such methods fail to distinguish the effects of the context on the word representation and the word label. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a novel method to incorporate the contextual information in two different levels, i.e., representation level and task-specific (i.e., label) level. Our extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets on SF show the effectiveness of our model leading to new state-of-the-art results on all three benchmark datasets for the task of SF.

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A Cascade Approach to Neural Abstractive Summarization with Content Selection and Fusion
Logan Lebanoff | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Walter Chang | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

We present an empirical study in favor of a cascade architecture to neural text summarization. Summarization practices vary widely but few other than news summarization can provide a sufficient amount of training data enough to meet the requirement of end-to-end neural abstractive systems which perform content selection and surface realization jointly to generate abstracts. Such systems also pose a challenge to summarization evaluation, as they force content selection to be evaluated along with text generation, yet evaluation of the latter remains an unsolved problem. In this paper, we present empirical results showing that the performance of a cascaded pipeline that separately identifies important content pieces and stitches them together into a coherent text is comparable to or outranks that of end-to-end systems, whereas a pipeline architecture allows for flexible content selection. We finally discuss how we can take advantage of a cascaded pipeline in neural text summarization and shed light on important directions for future research.

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Efficient Deployment of Conversational Natural Language Interfaces over Databases
Anthony Colas | Trung Bui | Franck Dernoncourt | Moumita Sinha | Doo Soon Kim
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Natural Language Interfaces

Many users communicate with chatbots and AI assistants in order to help them with various tasks. A key component of the assistant is the ability to understand and answer a user’s natural language questions for question-answering (QA). Because data can be usually stored in a structured manner, an essential step involves turning a natural language question into its corresponding query language. However, in order to train most natural language-to-query-language state-of-the-art models, a large amount of training data is needed first. In most domains, this data is not available and collecting such datasets for various domains can be tedious and time-consuming. In this work, we propose a novel method for accelerating the training dataset collection for developing the natural language-to-query-language machine learning models. Our system allows one to generate conversational multi-term data, where multiple turns define a dialogue session, enabling one to better utilize chatbot interfaces. We train two current state-of-the-art NL-to-QL models, on both an SQL and SPARQL-based datasets in order to showcase the adaptability and efficacy of our created data.

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ViLBERTScore: Evaluating Image Caption Using Vision-and-Language BERT
Hwanhee Lee | Seunghyun Yoon | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Trung Bui | Kyomin Jung
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Evaluation and Comparison of NLP Systems

In this paper, we propose an evaluation metric for image captioning systems using both image and text information. Unlike the previous methods that rely on textual representations in evaluating the caption, our approach uses visiolinguistic representations. The proposed method generates image-conditioned embeddings for each token using ViLBERT from both generated and reference texts. Then, these contextual embeddings from each of the two sentence-pair are compared to compute the similarity score. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets show that our method correlates significantly better with human judgments than all existing metrics.

2019

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Analyzing Sentence Fusion in Abstractive Summarization
Logan Lebanoff | John Muchovej | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Seokhwan Kim | Walter Chang | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on New Frontiers in Summarization

While recent work in abstractive summarization has resulted in higher scores in automatic metrics, there is little understanding on how these systems combine information taken from multiple document sentences. In this paper, we analyze the outputs of five state-of-the-art abstractive summarizers, focusing on summary sentences that are formed by sentence fusion. We ask assessors to judge the grammaticality, faithfulness, and method of fusion for summary sentences. Our analysis reveals that system sentences are mostly grammatical, but often fail to remain faithful to the original article.

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On the Effectiveness of the Pooling Methods for Biomedical Relation Extraction with Deep Learning
Tuan Ngo Nguyen | Franck Dernoncourt | Thien Huu Nguyen
Proceedings of the Tenth International Workshop on Health Text Mining and Information Analysis (LOUHI 2019)

Deep learning models have achieved state-of-the-art performances on many relation extraction datasets. A common element in these deep learning models involves the pooling mechanisms where a sequence of hidden vectors is aggregated to generate a single representation vector, serving as the features to perform prediction for RE. Unfortunately, the models in the literature tend to employ different strategies to perform pooling for RE, leading to the challenge to determine the best pooling mechanism for this problem, especially in the biomedical domain. In order to answer this question, in this work, we conduct a comprehensive study to evaluate the effectiveness of different pooling mechanisms for the deep learning models in biomedical RE. The experimental results suggest that dependency-based pooling is the best pooling strategy for RE in the biomedical domain, yielding the state-of-the-art performance on two benchmark datasets for this problem.

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Improving Human Text Comprehension through Semi-Markov CRF-based Neural Section Title Generation
Sebastian Gehrmann | Steven Layne | Franck Dernoncourt
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Titles of short sections within long documents support readers by guiding their focus towards relevant passages and by providing anchor-points that help to understand the progression of the document. The positive effects of section titles are even more pronounced when measured on readers with less developed reading abilities, for example in communities with limited labeled text resources. We, therefore, aim to develop techniques to generate section titles in low-resource environments. In particular, we present an extractive pipeline for section title generation by first selecting the most salient sentence and then applying deletion-based compression. Our compression approach is based on a Semi-Markov Conditional Random Field that leverages unsupervised word-representations such as ELMo or BERT, eliminating the need for a complex encoder-decoder architecture. The results show that this approach leads to competitive performance with sequence-to-sequence models with high resources, while strongly outperforming it with low resources. In a human-subject study across subjects with varying reading abilities, we find that our section titles improve the speed of completing comprehension tasks while retaining similar accuracy.

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DEFT: A corpus for definition extraction in free- and semi-structured text
Sasha Spala | Nicholas A. Miller | Yiming Yang | Franck Dernoncourt | Carl Dockhorn
Proceedings of the 13th Linguistic Annotation Workshop

Definition extraction has been a popular topic in NLP research for well more than a decade, but has been historically limited to well-defined, structured, and narrow conditions. In reality, natural language is messy, and messy data requires both complex solutions and data that reflects that reality. In this paper, we present a robust English corpus and annotation schema that allows us to explore the less straightforward examples of term-definition structures in free and semi-structured text.

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Margin Call: an Accessible Web-based Text Viewer with Generated Paragraph Summaries in the Margin
Naba Rizvi | Sebastian Gehrmann | Lidan Wang | Franck Dernoncourt
Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

We present Margin Call, a web-based text viewer that automatically generates short summaries for each paragraph of the text and displays the summaries in the margin of the text next to the corresponding paragraph. On the back-end, the summarizer first identifies the most important sentence for each paragraph in the text file uploaded by the user. The selected sentence is then automatically compressed to produce the short summary. The resulting summary is a few words long. The displayed summaries can help the user understand and retrieve information faster from the text, while increasing the retention of information.

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Learning Emphasis Selection for Written Text in Visual Media from Crowd-Sourced Label Distributions
Amirreza Shirani | Franck Dernoncourt | Paul Asente | Nedim Lipka | Seokhwan Kim | Jose Echevarria | Thamar Solorio
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

In visual communication, text emphasis is used to increase the comprehension of written text to convey the author’s intent. We study the problem of emphasis selection, i.e. choosing candidates for emphasis in short written text, to enable automated design assistance in authoring. Without knowing the author’s intent and only considering the input text, multiple emphasis selections are valid. We propose a model that employs end-to-end label distribution learning (LDL) on crowd-sourced data and predicts a selection distribution, capturing the inter-subjectivity (common-sense) in the audience as well as the ambiguity of the input. We compare the model with several baselines in which the problem is transformed to single-label learning by mapping label distributions to absolute labels via majority voting.

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Expressing Visual Relationships via Language
Hao Tan | Franck Dernoncourt | Zhe Lin | Trung Bui | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Describing images with text is a fundamental problem in vision-language research. Current studies in this domain mostly focus on single image captioning. However, in various real applications (e.g., image editing, difference interpretation, and retrieval), generating relational captions for two images, can also be very useful. This important problem has not been explored mostly due to lack of datasets and effective models. To push forward the research in this direction, we first introduce a new language-guided image editing dataset that contains a large number of real image pairs with corresponding editing instructions. We then propose a new relational speaker model based on an encoder-decoder architecture with static relational attention and sequential multi-head attention. We also extend the model with dynamic relational attention, which calculates visual alignment while decoding. Our models are evaluated on our newly collected and two public datasets consisting of image pairs annotated with relationship sentences. Experimental results, based on both automatic and human evaluation, demonstrate that our model outperforms all baselines and existing methods on all the datasets.

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Scoring Sentence Singletons and Pairs for Abstractive Summarization
Logan Lebanoff | Kaiqiang Song | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Seokhwan Kim | Walter Chang | Fei Liu
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

When writing a summary, humans tend to choose content from one or two sentences and merge them into a single summary sentence. However, the mechanisms behind the selection of one or multiple source sentences remain poorly understood. Sentence fusion assumes multi-sentence input; yet sentence selection methods only work with single sentences and not combinations of them. There is thus a crucial gap between sentence selection and fusion to support summarizing by both compressing single sentences and fusing pairs. This paper attempts to bridge the gap by ranking sentence singletons and pairs together in a unified space. Our proposed framework attempts to model human methodology by selecting either a single sentence or a pair of sentences, then compressing or fusing the sentence(s) to produce a summary sentence. We conduct extensive experiments on both single- and multi-document summarization datasets and report findings on sentence selection and abstraction.

2018

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A Discourse-Aware Attention Model for Abstractive Summarization of Long Documents
Arman Cohan | Franck Dernoncourt | Doo Soon Kim | Trung Bui | Seokhwan Kim | Walter Chang | Nazli Goharian
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 2 (Short Papers)

Neural abstractive summarization models have led to promising results in summarizing relatively short documents. We propose the first model for abstractive summarization of single, longer-form documents (e.g., research papers). Our approach consists of a new hierarchical encoder that models the discourse structure of a document, and an attentive discourse-aware decoder to generate the summary. Empirical results on two large-scale datasets of scientific papers show that our model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art models.

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MIT-MEDG at SemEval-2018 Task 7: Semantic Relation Classification via Convolution Neural Network
Di Jin | Franck Dernoncourt | Elena Sergeeva | Matthew McDermott | Geeticka Chauhan
Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

SemEval 2018 Task 7 tasked participants to build a system to classify two entities within a sentence into one of the 6 possible relation types. We tested 3 classes of models: Linear classifiers, Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) models, and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) models. Ultimately, the CNN model class proved most performant, so we specialized to this model for our final submissions. We improved performance beyond a vanilla CNN by including a variant of negative sampling, using custom word embeddings learned over a corpus of ACL articles, training over corpora of both tasks 1.1 and 1.2, using reversed feature, using part of context words beyond the entity pairs and using ensemble methods to improve our final predictions. We also tested attention based pooling, up-sampling, and data augmentation, but none improved performance. Our model achieved rank 6 out of 28 (macro-averaged F1-score: 72.7) in subtask 1.1, and rank 4 out of 20 (macro F1: 80.6) in subtask 1.2.

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A Comparison Study of Human Evaluated Automated Highlighting Systems
Sasha Spala | Franck Dernoncourt | Walter Chang | Carl Dockhorn
Proceedings of the 32nd Pacific Asia Conference on Language, Information and Computation

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A Repository of Corpora for Summarization
Franck Dernoncourt | Mohammad Ghassemi | Walter Chang
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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Transfer Learning for Named-Entity Recognition with Neural Networks
Ji Young Lee | Franck Dernoncourt | Peter Szolovits
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)

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A Web-based Framework for Collecting and Assessing Highlighted Sentences in a Document
Sasha Spala | Franck Dernoncourt | Walter Chang | Carl Dockhorn
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Automatically highlighting a text aims at identifying key portions that are the most important to a reader. In this paper, we present a web-based framework designed to efficiently and scalably crowdsource two independent but related tasks: collecting highlight annotations, and comparing the performance of automated highlighting systems. The first task is necessary to understand human preferences and train supervised automated highlighting systems. The second task yields a more accurate and fine-grained evaluation than existing automated performance metrics.

2017

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MIT at SemEval-2017 Task 10: Relation Extraction with Convolutional Neural Networks
Ji Young Lee | Franck Dernoncourt | Peter Szolovits
Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation (SemEval-2017)

Over 50 million scholarly articles have been published: they constitute a unique repository of knowledge. In particular, one may infer from them relations between scientific concepts. Artificial neural networks have recently been explored for relation extraction. In this work, we continue this line of work and present a system based on a convolutional neural network to extract relations. Our model ranked first in the SemEval-2017 task 10 (ScienceIE) for relation extraction in scientific articles (subtask C).

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PubMed 200k RCT: a Dataset for Sequential Sentence Classification in Medical Abstracts
Franck Dernoncourt | Ji Young Lee
Proceedings of the Eighth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 2: Short Papers)

We present PubMed 200k RCT, a new dataset based on PubMed for sequential sentence classification. The dataset consists of approximately 200,000 abstracts of randomized controlled trials, totaling 2.3 million sentences. Each sentence of each abstract is labeled with their role in the abstract using one of the following classes: background, objective, method, result, or conclusion. The purpose of releasing this dataset is twofold. First, the majority of datasets for sequential short-text classification (i.e., classification of short texts that appear in sequences) are small: we hope that releasing a new large dataset will help develop more accurate algorithms for this task. Second, from an application perspective, researchers need better tools to efficiently skim through the literature. Automatically classifying each sentence in an abstract would help researchers read abstracts more efficiently, especially in fields where abstracts may be long, such as the medical field.

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Neural Networks for Joint Sentence Classification in Medical Paper Abstracts
Franck Dernoncourt | Ji Young Lee | Peter Szolovits
Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers

Existing models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) for sentence classification often do not incorporate the context in which sentences appear, and classify sentences individually. However, traditional sentence classification approaches have been shown to greatly benefit from jointly classifying subsequent sentences, such as with conditional random fields. In this work, we present an ANN architecture that combines the effectiveness of typical ANN models to classify sentences in isolation, with the strength of structured prediction. Our model outperforms the state-of-the-art results on two different datasets for sequential sentence classification in medical abstracts.

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NeuroNER: an easy-to-use program for named-entity recognition based on neural networks
Franck Dernoncourt | Ji Young Lee | Peter Szolovits
Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Named-entity recognition (NER) aims at identifying entities of interest in a text. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have recently been shown to outperform existing NER systems. However, ANNs remain challenging to use for non-expert users. In this paper, we present NeuroNER, an easy-to-use named-entity recognition tool based on ANNs. Users can annotate entities using a graphical web-based user interface (BRAT): the annotations are then used to train an ANN, which in turn predict entities’ locations and categories in new texts. NeuroNER makes this annotation-training-prediction flow smooth and accessible to anyone.

2016

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Sequential Short-Text Classification with Recurrent and Convolutional Neural Networks
Ji Young Lee | Franck Dernoncourt
Proceedings of the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

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Feature-Augmented Neural Networks for Patient Note De-identification
Ji Young Lee | Franck Dernoncourt | Özlem Uzuner | Peter Szolovits
Proceedings of the Clinical Natural Language Processing Workshop (ClinicalNLP)

Patient notes contain a wealth of information of potentially great interest to medical investigators. However, to protect patients’ privacy, Protected Health Information (PHI) must be removed from the patient notes before they can be legally released, a process known as patient note de-identification. The main objective for a de-identification system is to have the highest possible recall. Recently, the first neural-network-based de-identification system has been proposed, yielding state-of-the-art results. Unlike other systems, it does not rely on human-engineered features, which allows it to be quickly deployed, but does not leverage knowledge from human experts or from electronic health records (EHRs). In this work, we explore a method to incorporate human-engineered features as well as features derived from EHRs to a neural-network-based de-identification system. Our results show that the addition of features, especially the EHR-derived features, further improves the state-of-the-art in patient note de-identification, including for some of the most sensitive PHI types such as patient names. Since in a real-life setting patient notes typically come with EHRs, we recommend developers of de-identification systems to leverage the information EHRs contain.

2012

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De l’utilisation du dialogue naturel pour masquer les QCM au sein des jeux sérieux (Of the Use of Natural Dialogue to Hide MCQs in Serious Games) [in French]
Franck Dernoncourt
Proceedings of the Joint Conference JEP-TALN-RECITAL 2012, volume 3: RECITAL

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