Frank Schilder


2019

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Litigation Analytics: Extracting and querying motions and orders from US federal courts
Thomas Vacek | Dezhao Song | Hugo Molina-Salgado | Ronald Teo | Conner Cowling | Frank Schilder
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Demonstrations)

Legal litigation planning can benefit from statistics collected from past decisions made by judges. Information on the typical duration for a submitted motion, for example, can give valuable clues for developing a successful strategy. Such information is encoded in semi-structured documents called dockets. In order to extract and aggregate this information, we deployed various information extraction and machine learning techniques. The aggregated data can be queried in real time within the Westlaw Edge search engine. In addition to a keyword search for judges, lawyers, law firms, parties and courts, we also implemented a question answering interface that offers targeted questions in order to get to the respective answers quicker.

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Litigation Analytics: Case Outcomes Extracted from US Federal Court Dockets
Thomas Vacek | Ronald Teo | Dezhao Song | Timothy Nugent | Conner Cowling | Frank Schilder
Proceedings of the Natural Legal Language Processing Workshop 2019

Dockets contain a wealth of information for planning a litigation strategy, but the information is locked up in semi-structured text. Manually deriving the outcomes for each party (e.g., settlement, verdict) would be very labor intensive. Having such information available for every past court case, however, would be very useful for developing a strategy because it potentially reveals tendencies and trends of judges and courts and the opposing counsel. We used Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques and deep learning methods allowing us to scale the automatic analysis of millions of US federal court dockets. The automatically extracted information is fed into a Litigation Analytics tool that is used by lawyers to plan how they approach concrete litigations.

2018

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The E2E NLG Challenge: A Tale of Two Systems
Charese Smiley | Elnaz Davoodi | Dezhao Song | Frank Schilder
Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

This paper presents the two systems we entered into the 2017 E2E NLG Challenge: TemplGen, a templated-based system and SeqGen, a neural network-based system. Through the automatic evaluation, SeqGen achieved competitive results compared to the template-based approach and to other participating systems as well. In addition to the automatic evaluation, in this paper we present and discuss the human evaluation results of our two systems.

2017

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Say the Right Thing Right: Ethics Issues in Natural Language Generation Systems
Charese Smiley | Frank Schilder | Vassilis Plachouras | Jochen L. Leidner
Proceedings of the First ACL Workshop on Ethics in Natural Language Processing

We discuss the ethical implications of Natural Language Generation systems. We use one particular system as a case study to identify and classify issues, and we provide an ethics checklist, in the hope that future system designers may benefit from conducting their own ethics reviews based on our checklist.

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Finding the “right” answers for customers
Frank Schilder
Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Natural Language Generation

This talk will present a few NLG systems developed within Thomson Reuters providing information to professionals such as lawyers, accountants or traders. Based on the experience developing these system, I will discuss the usefulness of automatic metrics, crowd-sourced evaluation, corpora studies and expert reviews. I will conclude with exploring the question of whether developers of NLG systems need to follow ethical guidelines and how those guidelines could be established.

2016

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When to Plummet and When to Soar: Corpus Based Verb Selection for Natural Language Generation
Charese Smiley | Vassilis Plachouras | Frank Schilder | Hiroko Bretz | Jochen Leidner | Dezhao Song
Proceedings of the 9th International Natural Language Generation conference

2015

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Natural Language Question Answering and Analytics for Diverse and Interlinked Datasets
Dezhao Song | Frank Schilder | Charese Smiley | Chris Brew
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Demonstrations

2013

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Domain Adaptable Semantic Clustering in Statistical NLG
Blake Howald | Ravikumar Kondadadi | Frank Schilder
Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS 2013) – Long Papers

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GenNext: A Consolidated Domain Adaptable NLG System
Frank Schilder | Blake Howald | Ravi Kondadadi
Proceedings of the 14th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation

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A Statistical NLG Framework for Aggregated Planning and Realization
Ravi Kondadadi | Blake Howald | Frank Schilder
Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

2010

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Hunting for the Black Swan: Risk Mining from Text
Jochen Leidner | Frank Schilder
Proceedings of the ACL 2010 System Demonstrations

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Book Review: Representation and Management of Narrative Information: Theoretical Principles and Implementation by Gian Piero Zarri
Frank Schilder
Computational Linguistics, Volume 36, Number 1, March 2010

2008

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FastSum: Fast and Accurate Query-based Multi-document Summarization
Frank Schilder | Ravikumar Kondadadi
Proceedings of ACL-08: HLT, Short Papers

2007

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SemEval-2007 Task 15: TempEval Temporal Relation Identification
Marc Verhagen | Robert Gaizauskas | Frank Schilder | Mark Hepple | Graham Katz | James Pustejovsky
Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Semantic Evaluations (SemEval-2007)

2001

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From Temporal Expressions To Temporal Information: Semantic Tagging Of News Messages
Frank Schilder | Christopher Habel
Proceedings of the ACL 2001 Workshop on Temporal and Spatial Information Processing

1999

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Reference Hashed
Frank Schilder
The Relation of Discourse/Dialogue Structure and Reference

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Pointing to Events
Frank Schilder
Ninth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics

1998

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An Underspecified Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (USDRT)
Frank Schilder
COLING 1998 Volume 2: The 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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Coherence in Spoken Discourse
Heike Tappe | Frank Schilder
COLING 1998 Volume 2: The 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

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An Underspecified Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (USDRT)
Frank Schilder
36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

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Coherence in Spoken Discourse
Heike Tappe | Frank Schilder
36th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and 17th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Volume 2

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Temporal Discourse Markers and the Flow of Events
Frank Schilder
Discourse Relations and Discourse Markers

1995

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Aspect and Discourse Structure: Is a Neutral Viewpoint Required?
Frank Schilder
33rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics