Fukun Ma


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AMR-based Network for Aspect-based Sentiment Analysis
Fukun Ma | Xuming Hu | Aiwei Liu | Yawen Yang | Shuang Li | Philip S. Yu | Lijie Wen
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Aspect-based sentiment analysis (ABSA) is a fine-grained sentiment classification task. Many recent works have used dependency trees to extract the relation between aspects and contexts and have achieved significant improvements. However, further improvement is limited due to the potential mismatch between the dependency tree as a syntactic structure and the sentiment classification as a semantic task. To alleviate this gap, we replace the syntactic dependency tree with the semantic structure named Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR) and propose a model called AMR-based Path Aggregation Relational Network (APARN) to take full advantage of semantic structures. In particular, we design the path aggregator and the relation-enhanced self-attention mechanism that complement each other. The path aggregator extracts semantic features from AMRs under the guidance of sentence information, while the relation-enhanced self-attention mechanism in turn improves sentence features with refined semantic information. Experimental results on four public datasets demonstrate 1.13% average F1 improvement of APARN in ABSA when compared with state-of-the-art baselines.

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Exploring the Compositional Generalization in Context Dependent Text-to-SQL Parsing
Aiwei Liu | Wei Liu | Xuming Hu | Shuang Li | Fukun Ma | Yawen Yang | Lijie Wen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

In the context-dependent Text-to-SQL task, the generated SQL statements are refined iteratively based on the user input utterance from each interaction. The input text from each interaction can be viewed as component modifications to the previous SQL statements, which could be further extracted as the modification patterns. Since these modification patterns could also be combined with other SQL statements, the models are supposed to have the compositional generalization to these novel combinations. This work is the first exploration of compositional generalization in context-dependent Text-to-SQL scenarios. To facilitate related studies, we constructed two challenging benchmarks named CoSQL-CG and SParC-CG by recombining the modification patterns and existing SQL statements. The following experiments show that almost all current models struggle on our proposed benchmarks. Furthermore, we found that better aligning the previous SQL statements with the input utterance could give models better combinatorial generalization ability. Based on these observations, we propose a method name p-align to improve the combinatorial generalization of Text-to-SQL models. Further experiments validate the effectiveness of our model.

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Enhancing Cross-lingual Natural Language Inference by Soft Prompting with Multilingual Verbalizer
Shuang Li | Xuming Hu | Aiwei Liu | Yawen Yang | Fukun Ma | Philip S. Yu | Lijie Wen
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Cross-lingual natural language inference is a fundamental problem in cross-lingual language understanding. Many recent works have used prompt learning to address the lack of annotated parallel corpora in XNLI.However, these methods adopt discrete prompting by simply translating the templates to the target language and need external expert knowledge to design the templates. Besides, discrete prompts of human-designed template words are not trainable vectors and can not be migrated to target languages in the inference stage flexibly. In this paper, we propose a novel Soft prompt learning framework with the Multilingual Verbalizer (SoftMV) for XNLI. SoftMV first constructs cloze-style question with soft prompts for the input sample. Then we leverage bilingual dictionaries to generate an augmented multilingual question for the original question. SoftMV adopts a multilingual verbalizer to align the representations of original and augmented multilingual questions into a unified semantic space with consistency regularization. Experimental results on XNLI demonstrate that SoftMV can achieve state-of-the-art performance and significantly outperform the previous methods under the few-shot and full-shot cross-lingual transfer settings.

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RAPL: A Relation-Aware Prototype Learning Approach for Few-Shot Document-Level Relation Extraction
Shiao Meng | Xuming Hu | Aiwei Liu | Shuang Li | Fukun Ma | Yawen Yang | Lijie Wen
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

How to identify semantic relations among entities in a document when only a few labeled documents are available? Few-shot document-level relation extraction (FSDLRE) is crucial for addressing the pervasive data scarcity problem in real-world scenarios. Metric-based meta-learning is an effective framework widely adopted for FSDLRE, which constructs class prototypes for classification. However, existing works often struggle to obtain class prototypes with accurate relational semantics: 1) To build prototype for a target relation type, they aggregate the representations of all entity pairs holding that relation, while these entity pairs may also hold other relations, thus disturbing the prototype. 2) They use a set of generic NOTA (none-of-the-above) prototypes across all tasks, neglecting that the NOTA semantics differs in tasks with different target relation types. In this paper, we propose a relation-aware prototype learning method for FSDLRE to strengthen the relational semantics of prototype representations. By judiciously leveraging the relation descriptions and realistic NOTA instances as guidance, our method effectively refines the relation prototypes and generates task-specific NOTA prototypes. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art approaches by average 2.61% F1 across various settings of two FSDLRE benchmarks.


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Character-level White-Box Adversarial Attacks against Transformers via Attachable Subwords Substitution
Aiwei Liu | Honghai Yu | Xuming Hu | Shu’ang Li | Li Lin | Fukun Ma | Yawen Yang | Lijie Wen
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We propose the first character-level white-box adversarial attack method against transformer models. The intuition of our method comes from the observation that words are split into subtokens before being fed into the transformer models and the substitution between two close subtokens has a similar effect with the character modification. Our method mainly contains three steps. First, a gradient-based method is adopted to find the most vulnerable words in the sentence. Then we split the selected words into subtokens to replace the origin tokenization result from the transformer tokenizer. Finally, we utilize an adversarial loss to guide the substitution of attachable subtokens in which the Gumbel-softmax trick is introduced to ensure gradient propagation. Meanwhile, we introduce the visual and length constraint in the optimization process to achieve minimum character modifications. Extensive experiments on both sentence-level and token-level tasks demonstrate that our method could outperform the previous attack methods in terms of success rate and edit distance. Furthermore, human evaluation verifies our adversarial examples could preserve their origin labels.


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Semi-supervised Relation Extraction via Incremental Meta Self-Training
Xuming Hu | Chenwei Zhang | Fukun Ma | Chenyao Liu | Lijie Wen | Philip S. Yu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

To alleviate human efforts from obtaining large-scale annotations, Semi-Supervised Relation Extraction methods aim to leverage unlabeled data in addition to learning from limited samples. Existing self-training methods suffer from the gradual drift problem, where noisy pseudo labels on unlabeled data are incorporated during training. To alleviate the noise in pseudo labels, we propose a method called MetaSRE, where a Relation Label Generation Network generates accurate quality assessment on pseudo labels by (meta) learning from the successful and failed attempts on Relation Classification Network as an additional meta-objective. To reduce the influence of noisy pseudo labels, MetaSRE adopts a pseudo label selection and exploitation scheme which assesses pseudo label quality on unlabeled samples and only exploits high-quality pseudo labels in a self-training fashion to incrementally augment labeled samples for both robustness and accuracy. Experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.