Gangwoo Kim


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Tree of Clarifications: Answering Ambiguous Questions with Retrieval-Augmented Large Language Models
Gangwoo Kim | Sungdong Kim | Byeongguk Jeon | Joonsuk Park | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Questions in open-domain question answering are often ambiguous, allowing multiple interpretations. One approach to handling them is to identify all possible interpretations of the ambiguous question (AQ) and to generate a long-form answer addressing them all, as suggested by Stelmakh et al., (2022). While it provides a comprehensive response without bothering the user for clarification, considering multiple dimensions of ambiguity and gathering corresponding knowledge remains a challenge. To cope with the challenge, we propose a novel framework, Tree of Clarifications (ToC): It recursively constructs a tree of disambiguations for the AQ—via few-shot prompting leveraging external knowledge—and uses it to generate a long-form answer. ToC outperforms existing baselines on ASQA in a few-shot setup across the metrics, while surpassing fully-supervised baselines trained on the whole training set in terms of Disambig-F1 and Disambig-ROUGE. Code is available at

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KU-DMIS-MSRA at RadSum23: Pre-trained Vision-Language Model for Radiology Report Summarization
Gangwoo Kim | Hajung Kim | Lei Ji | Seongsu Bae | Chanhwi Kim | Mujeen Sung | Hyunjae Kim | Kun Yan | Eric Chang | Jaewoo Kang
The 22nd Workshop on Biomedical Natural Language Processing and BioNLP Shared Tasks

In this paper, we introduce CheXOFA, a new pre-trained vision-language model (VLM) for the chest X-ray domain. Our model is initially pre-trained on various multimodal datasets within the general domain before being transferred to the chest X-ray domain. Following a prominent VLM, we unify various domain-specific tasks into a simple sequence-to-sequence schema. It enables the model to effectively learn the required knowledge and skills from limited resources in the domain. Demonstrating superior performance on the benchmark datasets provided by the BioNLP shared task (Delbrouck et al., 2023), our model benefits from its training across multiple tasks and domains. With subtle techniques including ensemble and factual calibration, our system achieves first place on the RadSum23 leaderboard for the hidden test set.


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Generating Information-Seeking Conversations from Unlabeled Documents
Gangwoo Kim | Sungdong Kim | Kang Min Yoo | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Synthesizing datasets for conversational question answering (CQA) from unlabeled documents remains challenging due to its interactive nature.Moreover, while modeling information needs is an essential key, only few studies have discussed it.In this paper, we introduce a novel framework, **SimSeek**, (**Sim**ulating information-**Seek**ing conversation from unlabeled documents), and compare its two variants.In our baseline, **SimSeek-sym**, a questioner generates follow-up questions upon the predetermined answer by an answerer.On the contrary, **SimSeek-asym** first generates the question and then finds its corresponding answer under the conversational context.Our experiments show that they can synthesize effective training resources for CQA and conversational search tasks.As a result, conversations from **SimSeek-asym** not only make more improvements in our experiments but also are favorably reviewed in a human evaluation.We finally release a large-scale resource of synthetic conversations, **Wiki-SimSeek**, containing 2 million CQA pairs built upon Wikipedia documents.With the dataset, our CQA model achieves the state-of-the-art performance on a recent CQA benchmark, QuAC.The code and dataset are available at

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Saving Dense Retriever from Shortcut Dependency in Conversational Search
Sungdong Kim | Gangwoo Kim
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Conversational search (CS) needs a holistic understanding of conversational inputs to retrieve relevant passages. In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of a retrieval shortcut in CS, which causes models to retrieve passages solely relying on partial history while disregarding the latest question. With in-depth analysis, we first show that naively trained dense retrievers heavily exploit the shortcut and hence perform poorly when asked to answer history-independent questions. To build more robust models against shortcut dependency, we explore various hard negative mining strategies. Experimental results show that training with the model-based hard negatives effectively mitigates the dependency on the shortcut, significantly improving dense retrievers on recent CS benchmarks. In particular, our retriever outperforms the previous state-of-the-art model by 11.0 in Recall@10 on QReCC.


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Learn to Resolve Conversational Dependency: A Consistency Training Framework for Conversational Question Answering
Gangwoo Kim | Hyunjae Kim | Jungsoo Park | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

One of the main challenges in conversational question answering (CQA) is to resolve the conversational dependency, such as anaphora and ellipsis. However, existing approaches do not explicitly train QA models on how to resolve the dependency, and thus these models are limited in understanding human dialogues. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, ExCorD (Explicit guidance on how to resolve Conversational Dependency) to enhance the abilities of QA models in comprehending conversational context. ExCorD first generates self-contained questions that can be understood without the conversation history, then trains a QA model with the pairs of original and self-contained questions using a consistency-based regularizer. In our experiments, we demonstrate that ExCorD significantly improves the QA models’ performance by up to 1.2 F1 on QuAC, and 5.2 F1 on CANARD, while addressing the limitations of the existing approaches.


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Look at the First Sentence: Position Bias in Question Answering
Miyoung Ko | Jinhyuk Lee | Hyunjae Kim | Gangwoo Kim | Jaewoo Kang
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Many extractive question answering models are trained to predict start and end positions of answers. The choice of predicting answers as positions is mainly due to its simplicity and effectiveness. In this study, we hypothesize that when the distribution of the answer positions is highly skewed in the training set (e.g., answers lie only in the k-th sentence of each passage), QA models predicting answers as positions can learn spurious positional cues and fail to give answers in different positions. We first illustrate this position bias in popular extractive QA models such as BiDAF and BERT and thoroughly examine how position bias propagates through each layer of BERT. To safely deliver position information without position bias, we train models with various de-biasing methods including entropy regularization and bias ensembling. Among them, we found that using the prior distribution of answer positions as a bias model is very effective at reducing position bias, recovering the performance of BERT from 37.48% to 81.64% when trained on a biased SQuAD dataset.