We study learning from user feedback for extractive question answering by simulating feedback using supervised data. We cast the problem as contextual bandit learning, and analyze the characteristics of several learning scenarios with focus on reducing data annotation. We show that systems initially trained on few examples can dramatically improve given feedback from users on model-predicted answers, and that one can use existing datasets to deploy systems in new domains without any annotation effort, but instead improving the system on-the-fly via user feedback.
Given our society’s increased exposure to multimedia formats on social media platforms, efforts to understand how digital content impacts people’s emotions are burgeoning. As such, we introduce a U.S. gun violence news dataset that contains news headline and image pairings from 840 news articles with 15K high-quality, crowdsourced annotations on emotional responses to the news pairings. We created three experimental conditions for the annotation process: two with a single modality (headline or image only), and one multimodal (headline and image together). In contrast to prior works on affectively-annotated data, our dataset includes annotations on the dominant emotion experienced with the content, the intensity of the selected emotion and an open-ended, written component. By collecting annotations on different modalities of the same news content pairings, we explore the relationship between image and text influence on human emotional response. We offer initial analysis on our dataset, showing the nuanced affective differences that appear due to modality and individual factors such as political leaning and media consumption habits. Our dataset is made publicly available to facilitate future research in affective computing.
We aim to develop methods for understanding how multimedia news exposure can affect people’s emotional responses, and we especially focus on news content related to gun violence, a very important yet polarizing issue in the U.S. We created the dataset NEmo+ by significantly extending the U.S. gun violence news-to-emotions dataset, BU-NEmo, from 320 to 1,297 news headline and lead image pairings and collecting 38,910 annotations in a large crowdsourcing experiment. In curating the NEmo+ dataset, we developed methods to identify news items that will trigger similar versus divergent emotional responses. For news items that trigger similar emotional responses, we compiled them into the NEmo+-Consensus dataset. We benchmark models on this dataset that predict a person’s dominant emotional response toward the target news item (single-label prediction). On the full NEmo+ dataset, containing news items that would lead to both differing and similar emotional responses, we also benchmark models for the novel task of predicting the distribution of evoked emotional responses in humans when presented with multi-modal news content. Our single-label and multi-label prediction models outperform baselines by large margins across several metrics.
We present end-to-end neural models for detecting metaphorical word use in context. We show that relatively standard BiLSTM models which operate on complete sentences work well in this setting, in comparison to previous work that used more restricted forms of linguistic context. These models establish a new state-of-the-art on existing verb metaphor detection benchmarks, and show strong performance on jointly predicting the metaphoricity of all words in a running text.