Gongshen Liu


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Is Continuous Prompt a Combination of Discrete Prompts? Towards a Novel View for Interpreting Continuous Prompts
Tianjie Ju | Yubin Zheng | Hanyi Wang | Haodong Zhao | Gongshen Liu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

The broad adoption of continuous prompts has brought state-of-the-art results on a diverse array of downstream natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to the interpretability and transferability of continuous prompts. Faced with the challenges, we investigate the feasibility of interpreting continuous prompts as the weighting of discrete prompts by jointly optimizing prompt fidelity and downstream fidelity. Our experiments show that: (1) one can always find a combination of discrete prompts as the replacement of continuous prompts that performs well on downstream tasks; (2) our interpretable framework faithfully reflects the reasoning process of source prompts; (3) our interpretations provide effective readability and plausibility, which is helpful to understand the decision-making of continuous prompts and discover potential shortcuts. Moreover, through the bridge constructed between continuous prompts and discrete prompts using our interpretations, it is promising to implement the cross-model transfer of continuous prompts without extra training signals. We hope this work will lead to a novel perspective on the interpretations of continuous prompts.


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Few-shot Table-to-text Generation with Prefix-Controlled Generator
Yutao Luo | Menghua Lu | Gongshen Liu | Shilin Wang
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Neural table-to-text generation approaches are data-hungry, limiting their adaption for low-resource real-world applications. Previous works mostly resort to Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) to generate fluent summaries of a table. However, they often contain hallucinated contents due to the uncontrolled nature of PLMs. Moreover, the topological differences between tables and sequences are rarely studied. Last but not least, fine-tuning on PLMs with a handful of instances may lead to over-fitting and catastrophic forgetting. To alleviate these problems, we propose a prompt-based approach, Prefix-Controlled Generator (i.e., PCG), for few-shot table-to-text generation. We prepend a task-specific prefix for a PLM to make the table structure better fit the pre-trained input. In addition, we generate an input-specific prefix to control the factual contents and word order of the generated text. Both automatic and human evaluations on different domains (humans, books and songs) of the Wikibio dataset prove the effectiveness of our approach.

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A Multi-Task Dual-Tree Network for Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction
Yichun Zhao | Kui Meng | Gongshen Liu | Jintao Du | Huijia Zhu
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Aspect Sentiment Triplet Extraction (ASTE) aims at extracting triplets from a given sentence, where each triplet includes an aspect, its sentiment polarity, and a corresponding opinion explaining the polarity. Existing methods are poor at detecting complicated relations between aspects and opinions as well as classifying multiple sentiment polarities in a sentence. Detecting unclear boundaries of multi-word aspects and opinions is also a challenge. In this paper, we propose a Multi-Task Dual-Tree Network (MTDTN) to address these issues. We employ a constituency tree and a modified dependency tree in two sub-tasks of Aspect Opinion Co-Extraction (AOCE) and ASTE, respectively. To enhance the information interaction between the two sub-tasks, we further design a Transition-Based Inference Strategy (TBIS) that transfers the boundary information from tags of AOCE to ASTE through a transition matrix. Extensive experiments are conducted on four popular datasets, and the results show the effectiveness of our model.

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TransAdv: A Translation-based Adversarial Learning Framework for Zero-Resource Cross-Lingual Named Entity Recognition
Yichun Zhao | Jintao Du | Gongshen Liu | Huijia Zhu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Zero-Resource Cross-Lingual Named Entity Recognition aims at training an NER model of the target language using only labeled source language data and unlabeled target language data. Existing methods are mainly divided into three categories: model transfer based, data transfer based and knowledge transfer based. Each method has its own disadvantages, and combining more than one of them often leads to better performance. However, the performance of data transfer based methods is often limited by inevitable noise in the translation process. To handle the problem, we propose a framework named TransAdv to mitigate lexical and syntactic errors of word-by-word translated data, better utilizing the data by multi-level adversarial learning and multi-model knowledge distillation. Extensive experiments are conducted over 6 target languages with English as the source language, and the results show that TransAdv achieves competitive performance to the state-of-the-art models.

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Improving Constituent Representation with Hypertree Neural Networks
Hao Zhou | Gongshen Liu | Kewei Tu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Many natural language processing tasks involve text spans and thus high-quality span representations are needed to enhance neural approaches to these tasks. Most existing methods of span representation are based on simple derivations (such as max-pooling) from word representations and do not utilize compositional structures of natural language. In this paper, we aim to improve representations of constituent spans using a novel hypertree neural networks (HTNN) that is structured with constituency parse trees. Each node in the HTNN represents a constituent of the input sentence and each hyperedge represents a composition of smaller child constituents into a larger parent constituent. In each update iteration of the HTNN, the representation of each constituent is computed based on all the hyperedges connected to it, thus incorporating both bottom-up and top-down compositional information. We conduct comprehensive experiments to evaluate HTNNs against other span representation models and the results show the effectiveness of HTNN.


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Entity-Aware Abstractive Multi-Document Summarization
Hao Zhou | Weidong Ren | Gongshen Liu | Bo Su | Wei Lu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL-IJCNLP 2021


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A Mixed Learning Objective for Neural Machine Translation
Wenjie Lu | Leiying Zhou | Gongshen Liu | Quanhai Zhang
Proceedings of the 19th Chinese National Conference on Computational Linguistics

Evaluation discrepancy and overcorrection phenomenon are two common problems in neural machine translation (NMT). NMT models are generally trained with word-level learning objective, but evaluated by sentence-level metrics. Moreover, the cross-entropy loss function discourages model to generate synonymous predictions and overcorrect them to ground truth words. To address these two drawbacks, we adopt multi-task learning and propose a mixed learning objective (MLO) which combines the strength of word-level and sentence-level evaluation without modifying model structure. At word-level, it calculates semantic similarity between predicted and ground truth words. At sentence-level, it computes probabilistic n-gram matching scores of generated translations. We also combine a loss-sensitive scheduled sampling decoding strategy with MLO to explore its extensibility. Experimental results on IWSLT 2016 German-English and WMT 2019 English-Chinese datasets demonstrate that our methodology can significantly promote translation quality. The ablation study shows that both word-level and sentence-level learning objectives can improve BLEU scores. Furthermore, MLO is consistent with state-of-the-art scheduled sampling methods and can achieve further promotion.

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Hierarchy-Aware Global Model for Hierarchical Text Classification
Jie Zhou | Chunping Ma | Dingkun Long | Guangwei Xu | Ning Ding | Haoyu Zhang | Pengjun Xie | Gongshen Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Hierarchical text classification is an essential yet challenging subtask of multi-label text classification with a taxonomic hierarchy. Existing methods have difficulties in modeling the hierarchical label structure in a global view. Furthermore, they cannot make full use of the mutual interactions between the text feature space and the label space. In this paper, we formulate the hierarchy as a directed graph and introduce hierarchy-aware structure encoders for modeling label dependencies. Based on the hierarchy encoder, we propose a novel end-to-end hierarchy-aware global model (HiAGM) with two variants. A multi-label attention variant (HiAGM-LA) learns hierarchy-aware label embeddings through the hierarchy encoder and conducts inductive fusion of label-aware text features. A text feature propagation model (HiAGM-TP) is proposed as the deductive variant that directly feeds text features into hierarchy encoders. Compared with previous works, both HiAGM-LA and HiAGM-TP achieve significant and consistent improvements on three benchmark datasets.


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Multiple Character Embeddings for Chinese Word Segmentation
Jianing Zhou | Jingkang Wang | Gongshen Liu
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Chinese word segmentation (CWS) is often regarded as a character-based sequence labeling task in most current works which have achieved great success with the help of powerful neural networks. However, these works neglect an important clue: Chinese characters incorporate both semantic and phonetic meanings. In this paper, we introduce multiple character embeddings including Pinyin Romanization and Wubi Input, both of which are easily accessible and effective in depicting semantics of characters. We propose a novel shared Bi-LSTM-CRF model to fuse linguistic features efficiently by sharing the LSTM network during the training procedure. Extensive experiments on five corpora show that extra embeddings help obtain a significant improvement in labeling accuracy. Specifically, we achieve the state-of-the-art performance in AS and CityU corpora with F1 scores of 96.9 and 97.3, respectively without leveraging any external lexical resources.


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Sliced Recurrent Neural Networks
Zeping Yu | Gongshen Liu
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Recurrent neural networks have achieved great success in many NLP tasks. However, they have difficulty in parallelization because of the recurrent structure, so it takes much time to train RNNs. In this paper, we introduce sliced recurrent neural networks (SRNNs), which could be parallelized by slicing the sequences into many subsequences. SRNNs have the ability to obtain high-level information through multiple layers with few extra parameters. We prove that the standard RNN is a special case of the SRNN when we use linear activation functions. Without changing the recurrent units, SRNNs are 136 times as fast as standard RNNs and could be even faster when we train longer sequences. Experiments on six large-scale sentiment analysis datasets show that SRNNs achieve better performance than standard RNNs.

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Modeling Multi-turn Conversation with Deep Utterance Aggregation
Zhuosheng Zhang | Jiangtong Li | Pengfei Zhu | Hai Zhao | Gongshen Liu
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Multi-turn conversation understanding is a major challenge for building intelligent dialogue systems. This work focuses on retrieval-based response matching for multi-turn conversation whose related work simply concatenates the conversation utterances, ignoring the interactions among previous utterances for context modeling. In this paper, we formulate previous utterances into context using a proposed deep utterance aggregation model to form a fine-grained context representation. In detail, a self-matching attention is first introduced to route the vital information in each utterance. Then the model matches a response with each refined utterance and the final matching score is obtained after attentive turns aggregation. Experimental results show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on three multi-turn conversation benchmarks, including a newly introduced e-commerce dialogue corpus.

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A Unified Syntax-aware Framework for Semantic Role Labeling
Zuchao Li | Shexia He | Jiaxun Cai | Zhuosheng Zhang | Hai Zhao | Gongshen Liu | Linlin Li | Luo Si
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Semantic role labeling (SRL) aims to recognize the predicate-argument structure of a sentence. Syntactic information has been paid a great attention over the role of enhancing SRL. However, the latest advance shows that syntax would not be so important for SRL with the emerging much smaller gap between syntax-aware and syntax-agnostic SRL. To comprehensively explore the role of syntax for SRL task, we extend existing models and propose a unified framework to investigate more effective and more diverse ways of incorporating syntax into sequential neural networks. Exploring the effect of syntactic input quality on SRL performance, we confirm that high-quality syntactic parse could still effectively enhance syntactically-driven SRL. Using empirically optimized integration strategy, we even enlarge the gap between syntax-aware and syntax-agnostic SRL. Our framework achieves state-of-the-art results on CoNLL-2009 benchmarks both for English and Chinese, substantially outperforming all previous models.