Göran Kauermann


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More Labels or Cases? Assessing Label Variation in Natural Language Inference
Cornelia Gruber | Katharina Hechinger | Matthias Assenmacher | Göran Kauermann | Barbara Plank
Proceedings of the Third Workshop on Understanding Implicit and Underspecified Language

In this work, we analyze the uncertainty that is inherently present in the labels used for supervised machine learning in natural language inference (NLI). In cases where multiple annotations per instance are available, neither the majority vote nor the frequency of individual class votes is a trustworthy representation of the labeling uncertainty. We propose modeling the votes via a Bayesian mixture model to recover the data-generating process, i.e., the “true” latent classes, and thus gain insight into the class variations. This will enable a better understanding of the confusion happening during the annotation process. We also assess the stability of the proposed estimation procedure by systematically varying the numbers of i) instances and ii) labels. Thereby, we observe that few instances with many labels can predict the latent class borders reasonably well, while the estimation fails for many instances with only a few labels. This leads us to conclude that multiple labels are a crucial building block for properly analyzing label uncertainty.


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Embedding Space Correlation as a Measure of Domain Similarity
Anne Beyer | Göran Kauermann | Hinrich Schütze
Proceedings of the Twelfth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Prior work has determined domain similarity using text-based features of a corpus. However, when using pre-trained word embeddings, the underlying text corpus might not be accessible anymore. Therefore, we propose the CCA measure, a new measure of domain similarity based directly on the dimension-wise correlations between corresponding embedding spaces. Our results suggest that an inherent notion of domain can be captured this way, as we are able to reproduce our findings for different domain comparisons for English, German, Spanish and Czech as well as in cross-lingual comparisons. We further find a threshold at which the CCA measure indicates that two corpora come from the same domain in a monolingual setting by applying permutation tests. By evaluating the usability of the CCA measure in a domain adaptation application, we also show that it can be used to determine which corpora are more similar to each other in a cross-domain sentiment detection task.