Greg Ver Steeg

Also published as: Greg Ver Steeg, Greg Ver steeg


2023

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Measuring and Mitigating Local Instability in Deep Neural Networks
Arghya Datta | Subhrangshu Nandi | Jingcheng Xu | Greg Ver Steeg | He Xie | Anoop Kumar | Aram Galstyan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are becoming integral components of real world services relied upon by millions of users. Unfortunately, architects of these systems can find it difficult to ensure reliable performance as irrelevant details like random initialization can unexpectedly change the outputs of a trained system with potentially disastrous consequences. We formulate the model stability problem by studying how the predictions of a model change, even when it is retrained on the same data, as a consequence of stochasticity in the training process. For Natural Language Understanding (NLU) tasks, we find instability in predictions for a significant fraction of queries. We formulate principled metrics, like per-sample “label entropy” across training runs or within a single training run, to quantify this phenomenon. Intriguingly, we find that unstable predictions do not appear at random, but rather appear to be clustered in data-specific ways. We study data-agnostic regularization methods to improve stability and propose new data-centric methods that exploit our local stability estimates. We find that our localized data-specific mitigation strategy dramatically outperforms data-agnostic methods, and comes within 90% of the gold standard, achieved by ensembling, at a fraction of the computational cost.

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Neural Architecture Search for Parameter-Efficient Fine-tuning of Large Pre-trained Language Models
Neal Lawton | Anoop Kumar | Govind Thattai | Aram Galstyan | Greg Ver Steeg
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Parameter-efficient tuning (PET) methods fit pre-trained language models (PLMs) to downstream tasks by either computing a small compressed update for a subset of model parameters, or appending and fine-tuning a small number of new model parameters to the pre-trained network. Hand-designed PET architectures from the literature perform well in practice, but have the potential to be improved via automated neural architecture search (NAS). We propose an efficient NAS method for learning PET architectures via structured and unstructured pruning. We present experiments on GLUE demonstrating the effectiveness of our algorithm and discuss how PET architectural design choices affect performance in practice.

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Jointly Reparametrized Multi-Layer Adaptation for Efficient and Private Tuning
Umang Gupta | Aram Galstyan | Greg Ver Steeg
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Efficient finetuning of pretrained language transformers is becoming increasingly prevalent for solving natural language processing tasks. While effective, it can still require a large number of tunable parameters. This can be a drawback for low-resource applications and training with differential-privacy constraints, where excessive noise may be introduced during finetuning. To this end, we propose a novel language transformer finetuning strategy that introduces task-specific parameters in multiple transformer layers. These parameters are derived from fixed random projections of a single trainable vector, enabling finetuning with significantly fewer parameters while maintaining performance. We achieve within 5% of full finetuning performance on GLUE tasks with as few as 4,100 parameters per task, outperforming other parameter-efficient finetuning approaches that use a similar number of per-task parameters. Besides, the random projections can be precomputed at inference, avoiding additional computational latency. All these make our method particularly appealing for low-resource applications. Finally, our method achieves the best or comparable utility compared to several recent finetuning methods when training with the same privacy constraints, underscoring its effectiveness and potential real-world impact.

2022

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Mitigating Gender Bias in Distilled Language Models via Counterfactual Role Reversal
Umang Gupta | Jwala Dhamala | Varun Kumar | Apurv Verma | Yada Pruksachatkun | Satyapriya Krishna | Rahul Gupta | Kai-Wei Chang | Greg Ver Steeg | Aram Galstyan
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Language models excel at generating coherent text, and model compression techniques such as knowledge distillation have enabled their use in resource-constrained settings. However, these models can be biased in multiple ways, including the unfounded association of male and female genders with gender-neutral professions. Therefore, knowledge distillation without any fairness constraints may preserve or exaggerate the teacher model’s biases onto the distilled model. To this end, we present a novel approach to mitigate gender disparity in text generation by learning a fair model during knowledge distillation. We propose two modifications to the base knowledge distillation based on counterfactual role reversal—modifying teacher probabilities and augmenting the training set. We evaluate gender polarity across professions in open-ended text generated from the resulting distilled and finetuned GPT–2 models and demonstrate a substantial reduction in gender disparity with only a minor compromise in utility. Finally, we observe that language models that reduce gender polarity in language generation do not improve embedding fairness or downstream classification fairness.

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StATIK: Structure and Text for Inductive Knowledge Graph Completion
Elan Markowitz | Keshav Balasubramanian | Mehrnoosh Mirtaheri | Murali Annavaram | Aram Galstyan | Greg Ver Steeg
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Knowledge graphs (KGs) often represent knowledge bases that are incomplete. Machine learning models can alleviate this by helping automate graph completion. Recently, there has been growing interest in completing knowledge bases that are dynamic, where previously unseen entities may be added to the KG with many missing links. In this paper, we present StATIKStructure And Text for Inductive Knowledge Completion. StATIK uses Language Models to extract the semantic information from text descriptions, while using Message Passing Neural Networks to capture the structural information. StATIK achieves state of the art results on three challenging inductive baselines. We further analyze our hybrid model through detailed ablation studies.

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Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Sequence Tagging as Seq2Seq Generation for Joint Intent Classification and Slot Filling
Fei Wang | Kuan-hao Huang | Anoop Kumar | Aram Galstyan | Greg Ver steeg | Kai-wei Chang
Proceedings of the Massively Multilingual Natural Language Understanding Workshop (MMNLU-22)

The joint intent classification and slot filling task seeks to detect the intent of an utterance and extract its semantic concepts. In the zero-shot cross-lingual setting, a model is trained on a source language and then transferred to other target languages through multi-lingual representations without additional training data. While prior studies show that pre-trained multilingual sequence-to-sequence (Seq2Seq) models can facilitate zero-shot transfer, there is little understanding on how to design the output template for the joint prediction tasks. In this paper, we examine three aspects of the output template – (1) label mapping, (2) task dependency, and (3) word order. Experiments on the MASSIVE dataset consisting of 51 languages show that our output template significantly improves the performance of pre-trained cross-lingual language models.

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Attributing Fair Decisions with Attention Interventions
Ninareh Mehrabi | Umang Gupta | Fred Morstatter | Greg Ver Steeg | Aram Galstyan
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Trustworthy Natural Language Processing (TrustNLP 2022)

The widespread use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in consequential domains, such as health-care and parole decision-making systems, has drawn intense scrutiny on the fairness of these methods. However, ensuring fairness is often insufficient as the rationale for a contentious decision needs to be audited, understood, and defended. We propose that the attention mechanism can be used to ensure fair outcomes while simultaneously providing feature attributions to account for how a decision was made. Toward this goal, we design an attention-based model that can be leveraged as an attribution framework. It can identify features responsible for both performance and fairness of the model through attention interventions and attention weight manipulation. Using this attribution framework, we then design a post-processing bias mitigation strategy and compare it with a suite of baselines. We demonstrate the versatility of our approach by conducting experiments on two distinct data types, tabular and textual.

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Temporal Generalization for Spoken Language Understanding
Judith Gaspers | Anoop Kumar | Greg Ver Steeg | Aram Galstyan
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies: Industry Track

Spoken Language Understanding (SLU) models in industry applications are usually trained offline on historic data, but have to perform well on incoming user requests after deployment. Since the application data is not available at training time, this is formally similar to the domain generalization problem, where domains correspond to different temporal segments of the data, and the goal is to build a model that performs well on unseen domains, e.g., upcoming data. In this paper, we explore different strategies for achieving good temporal generalization, including instance weighting, temporal fine-tuning, learning temporal features and building a temporally-invariant model. Our results on data of large-scale SLU systems show that temporal information can be leveraged to improve temporal generalization for SLU models.

2019

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Nearly-Unsupervised Hashcode Representations for Biomedical Relation Extraction
Sahil Garg | Aram Galstyan | Greg Ver Steeg | Guillermo Cecchi
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Recently, kernelized locality sensitive hashcodes have been successfully employed as representations of natural language text, especially showing high relevance to biomedical relation extraction tasks. In this paper, we propose to optimize the hashcode representations in a nearly unsupervised manner, in which we only use data points, but not their class labels, for learning. The optimized hashcode representations are then fed to a supervised classifi er following the prior work. This nearly unsupervised approach allows fine-grained optimization of each hash function, which is particularly suitable for building hashcode representations generalizing from a training set to a test set. We empirically evaluate the proposed approach for biomedical relation extraction tasks, obtaining significant accuracy improvements w.r.t. state-of-the-art supervised and semi-supervised approaches.

2017

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Anchored Correlation Explanation: Topic Modeling with Minimal Domain Knowledge
Ryan J. Gallagher | Kyle Reing | David Kale | Greg Ver Steeg
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 5

While generative models such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) have proven fruitful in topic modeling, they often require detailed assumptions and careful specification of hyperparameters. Such model complexity issues only compound when trying to generalize generative models to incorporate human input. We introduce Correlation Explanation (CorEx), an alternative approach to topic modeling that does not assume an underlying generative model, and instead learns maximally informative topics through an information-theoretic framework. This framework naturally generalizes to hierarchical and semi-supervised extensions with no additional modeling assumptions. In particular, word-level domain knowledge can be flexibly incorporated within CorEx through anchor words, allowing topic separability and representation to be promoted with minimal human intervention. Across a variety of datasets, metrics, and experiments, we demonstrate that CorEx produces topics that are comparable in quality to those produced by unsupervised and semi-supervised variants of LDA.