Gregor Betz


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DeepA2: A Modular Framework for Deep Argument Analysis with Pretrained Neural Text2Text Language Models
Gregor Betz | Kyle Richardson
Proceedings of the 11th Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics

In this paper, we present and implement a multi-dimensional, modular framework for performing deep argument analysis (DeepA2) using current pre-trained language models (PTLMs). ArgumentAnalyst – a T5 model [Raffel et al. 2020] set up and trained within DeepA2 – reconstructs argumentative texts, which advance an informal argumentation, as valid arguments: It inserts, e.g., missing premises and conclusions, formalizes inferences, and coherently links the logical reconstruction to the source text. We create a synthetic corpus for deep argument analysis, and evaluate ArgumentAnalyst on this new dataset as well as on existing data, specifically EntailmentBank [Dalvi et al. 2021]. Our empirical findings vindicate the overall framework and highlight the advantages of a modular design, in particular its ability to emulate established heuristics (such as hermeneutic cycles), to explore the model’s uncertainty, to cope with the plurality of correct solutions (underdetermination), and to exploit higher-order evidence.


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Critical Thinking for Language Models
Gregor Betz | Christian Voigt | Kyle Richardson
Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computational Semantics (IWCS)

This paper takes a first step towards a critical thinking curriculum for neural auto-regressive language models. We introduce a synthetic corpus of deductively valid arguments, and generate artificial argumentative texts to train CRiPT: a critical thinking intermediarily pre-trained transformer based on GPT-2. Significant transfer learning effects can be observed: Trained on three simple core schemes, CRiPT accurately completes conclusions of different, and more complex types of arguments, too. CRiPT generalizes the core argument schemes in a correct way. Moreover, we obtain consistent and promising results for NLU benchmarks. In particular, CRiPT’s zero-shot accuracy on the GLUE diagnostics exceeds GPT-2’s performance by 15 percentage points. The findings suggest that intermediary pre-training on texts that exemplify basic reasoning abilities (such as typically covered in critical thinking textbooks) might help language models to acquire a broad range of reasoning skills. The synthetic argumentative texts presented in this paper are a promising starting point for building such a “critical thinking curriculum for language models.”