Gregor Geigle


2023

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One does not fit all! On the Complementarity of Vision Encoders for Vision and Language Tasks
Gregor Geigle | Chen Liu | Jonas Pfeiffer | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP 2023)

Current multimodal models, aimed at solving Vision and Language (V+L) tasks, predominantly repurpose Vision Encoders (VE) as feature extractors. While many VEs—of different architectures, trained on different data and objectives—are publicly available, they are not designed for the downstream V+L tasks. Nonetheless, most current work assumes that a single pre-trained VE can serve as a general-purpose encoder. In this work, we focus on analysis and aim to understand whether the information stored within different VEs is complementary, i.e. if providing the model with features from multiple VEs can improve the performance on a target task, and how they are combined. We exhaustively experiment with three popular VEs on six downstream V+L tasks and analyze the attention and VE-dropout patterns. Our analyses suggest that diverse VEs complement each other, resulting in improved downstream V+L task performance, where the improvements are not due to simple ensemble effects (i.e. the performance does not always improve when increasing the number of encoders). We demonstrate that future VEs, which are not repurposed, but explicitly designed for V+L tasks, have the potential of improving performance on the target V+L tasks.

2022

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UKP-SQUARE: An Online Platform for Question Answering Research
Tim Baumgärtner | Kexin Wang | Rachneet Sachdeva | Gregor Geigle | Max Eichler | Clifton Poth | Hannah Sterz | Haritz Puerto | Leonardo F. R. Ribeiro | Jonas Pfeiffer | Nils Reimers | Gözde Şahin | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

Recent advances in NLP and information retrieval have given rise to a diverse set of question answering tasks that are of different formats (e.g., extractive, abstractive), require different model architectures (e.g., generative, discriminative), and setups (e.g., with or without retrieval). Despite having a large number of powerful, specialized QA pipelines (which we refer to as Skills) that consider a single domain, model or setup, there exists no framework where users can easily explore and compare such pipelines and can extend them according to their needs. To address this issue, we present UKP-SQuARE, an extensible online QA platform for researchers which allows users to query and analyze a large collection of modern Skills via a user-friendly web interface and integrated behavioural tests. In addition, QA researchers can develop, manage, and share their custom Skills using our microservices that support a wide range of models (Transformers, Adapters, ONNX), datastores and retrieval techniques (e.g., sparse and dense). UKP-SQuARE is available on https://square.ukp-lab.de

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Retrieve Fast, Rerank Smart: Cooperative and Joint Approaches for Improved Cross-Modal Retrieval
Gregor Geigle | Jonas Pfeiffer | Nils Reimers | Ivan Vulić | Iryna Gurevych
Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Volume 10

Current state-of-the-art approaches to cross- modal retrieval process text and visual input jointly, relying on Transformer-based architectures with cross-attention mechanisms that attend over all words and objects in an image. While offering unmatched retrieval performance, such models: 1) are typically pretrained from scratch and thus less scalable, 2) suffer from huge retrieval latency and inefficiency issues, which makes them impractical in realistic applications. To address these crucial gaps towards both improved and efficient cross- modal retrieval, we propose a novel fine-tuning framework that turns any pretrained text-image multi-modal model into an efficient retrieval model. The framework is based on a cooperative retrieve-and-rerank approach that combines: 1) twin networks (i.e., a bi-encoder) to separately encode all items of a corpus, enabling efficient initial retrieval, and 2) a cross-encoder component for a more nuanced (i.e., smarter) ranking of the retrieved small set of items. We also propose to jointly fine- tune the two components with shared weights, yielding a more parameter-efficient model. Our experiments on a series of standard cross-modal retrieval benchmarks in monolingual, multilingual, and zero-shot setups, demonstrate improved accuracy and huge efficiency benefits over the state-of-the-art cross- encoders.1

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FigMemes: A Dataset for Figurative Language Identification in Politically-Opinionated Memes
Chen Liu | Gregor Geigle | Robin Krebs | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Real-world politically-opinionated memes often rely on figurative language to cloak propaganda and radical ideas to help them spread. It is not only a scientific challenge to develop machine learning models to recognize them in memes, but also sociologically beneficial to understand hidden meanings at scale and raise awareness. These memes are fast-evolving (in both topics and visuals) and it remains unclear whether current multimodal machine learning models are robust to such distribution shifts. To enable future research into this area, we first present FigMemes, a dataset for figurative language classification in politically-opinionated memes. We evaluate the performance of state-of-the-art unimodal and multimodal models and provide comprehensive benchmark results. The key contributions of this proposed dataset include annotations of six commonly used types of figurative language in politically-opinionated memes, and a wide range of topics and visual styles. We also provide analyses on the ability of multimodal models to generalize across distribution shifts in memes. Our dataset poses unique machine learning challenges and our results show that current models have significant room for improvement in both performance and robustness to distribution shifts.

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xGQA: Cross-Lingual Visual Question Answering
Jonas Pfeiffer | Gregor Geigle | Aishwarya Kamath | Jan-Martin Steitz | Stefan Roth | Ivan Vulić | Iryna Gurevych
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

Recent advances in multimodal vision and language modeling have predominantly focused on the English language, mostly due to the lack of multilingual multimodal datasets to steer modeling efforts. In this work, we address this gap and provide xGQA, a new multilingual evaluation benchmark for the visual question answering task. We extend the established English GQA dataset to 7 typologically diverse languages, enabling us to detect and explore crucial challenges in cross-lingual visual question answering. We further propose new adapter-based approaches to adapt multimodal transformer-based models to become multilingual, and—vice versa—multilingual models to become multimodal. Our proposed methods outperform current state-of-the-art multilingual multimodal models (e.g., M3P) in zero-shot cross-lingual settings, but the accuracy remains low across the board; a performance drop of around 38 accuracy points in target languages showcases the difficulty of zero-shot cross-lingual transfer for this task. Our results suggest that simple cross-lingual transfer of multimodal models yields latent multilingual multimodal misalignment, calling for more sophisticated methods for vision and multilingual language modeling.

2021

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TUDa at WMT21: Sentence-Level Direct Assessment with Adapters
Gregor Geigle | Jonas Stadtmüller | Wei Zhao | Jonas Pfeiffer | Steffen Eger
Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Machine Translation

This paper presents our submissions to the WMT2021 Shared Task on Quality Estimation, Task 1 Sentence-Level Direct Assessment. While top-performing approaches utilize massively multilingual Transformer-based language models which have been pre-trained on all target languages of the task, the resulting insights are limited, as it is unclear how well the approach performs on languages unseen during pre-training; more problematically, these approaches do not provide any solutions for extending the model to new languages or unseen scripts—arguably one of the objectives of this shared task. In this work, we thus focus on utilizing massively multilingual language models which only partly cover the target languages during their pre-training phase. We extend the model to new languages and unseen scripts using recent adapter-based methods and achieve on par performance or even surpass models pre-trained on the respective languages.

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AdapterDrop: On the Efficiency of Adapters in Transformers
Andreas Rücklé | Gregor Geigle | Max Glockner | Tilman Beck | Jonas Pfeiffer | Nils Reimers | Iryna Gurevych
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Transformer models are expensive to fine-tune, slow for inference, and have large storage requirements. Recent approaches tackle these shortcomings by training smaller models, dynamically reducing the model size, and by training light-weight adapters. In this paper, we propose AdapterDrop, removing adapters from lower transformer layers during training and inference, which incorporates concepts from all three directions. We show that AdapterDrop can dynamically reduce the computational overhead when performing inference over multiple tasks simultaneously, with minimal decrease in task performances. We further prune adapters from AdapterFusion, which improves the inference efficiency while maintaining the task performances entirely.