Guangwei Xu


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Robust Self-Augmentation for Named Entity Recognition with Meta Reweighting
Linzhi Wu | Pengjun Xie | Jie Zhou | Meishan Zhang | Ma Chunping | Guangwei Xu | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies

Self-augmentation has received increasing research interest recently to improve named entity recognition (NER) performance in low-resource scenarios. Token substitution and mixup are two feasible heterogeneous self-augmentation techniques for NER that can achieve effective performance with certain specialized efforts. Noticeably, self-augmentation may introduce potentially noisy augmented data. Prior research has mainly resorted to heuristic rule-based constraints to reduce the noise for specific self-augmentation methods individually. In this paper, we revisit these two typical self-augmentation methods for NER, and propose a unified meta-reweighting strategy for them to achieve a natural integration. Our method is easily extensible, imposing little effort on a specific self-augmentation method. Experiments on different Chinese and English NER benchmarks show that our token substitution and mixup method, as well as their integration, can achieve effective performance improvement. Based on the meta-reweighting mechanism, we can enhance the advantages of the self-augmentation techniques without much extra effort.

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Parallel Instance Query Network for Named Entity Recognition
Yongliang Shen | Xiaobin Wang | Zeqi Tan | Guangwei Xu | Pengjun Xie | Fei Huang | Weiming Lu | Yueting Zhuang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Named entity recognition (NER) is a fundamental task in natural language processing. Recent works treat named entity recognition as a reading comprehension task, constructing type-specific queries manually to extract entities. This paradigm suffers from three issues. First, type-specific queries can only extract one type of entities per inference, which is inefficient. Second, the extraction for different types of entities is isolated, ignoring the dependencies between them. Third, query construction relies on external knowledge and is difficult to apply to realistic scenarios with hundreds of entity types. To deal with them, we propose Parallel Instance Query Network (PIQN), which sets up global and learnable instance queries to extract entities from a sentence in a parallel manner. Each instance query predicts one entity, and by feeding all instance queries simultaneously, we can query all entities in parallel. Instead of being constructed from external knowledge, instance queries can learn their different query semantics during training. For training the model, we treat label assignment as a one-to-many Linear Assignment Problem (LAP) and dynamically assign gold entities to instance queries with minimal assignment cost. Experiments on both nested and flat NER datasets demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms previous state-of-the-art models.

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Identifying Chinese Opinion Expressions with Extremely-Noisy Crowdsourcing Annotations
Xin Zhang | Guangwei Xu | Yueheng Sun | Meishan Zhang | Xiaobin Wang | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recent works of opinion expression identification (OEI) rely heavily on the quality and scale of the manually-constructed training corpus, which could be extremely difficult to satisfy. Crowdsourcing is one practical solution for this problem, aiming to create a large-scale but quality-unguaranteed corpus. In this work, we investigate Chinese OEI with extremely-noisy crowdsourcing annotations, constructing a dataset at a very low cost. Following Zhang el al. (2021), we train the annotator-adapter model by regarding all annotations as gold-standard in terms of crowd annotators, and test the model by using a synthetic expert, which is a mixture of all annotators. As this annotator-mixture for testing is never modeled explicitly in the training phase, we propose to generate synthetic training samples by a pertinent mixup strategy to make the training and testing highly consistent. The simulation experiments on our constructed dataset show that crowdsourcing is highly promising for OEI, and our proposed annotator-mixup can further enhance the crowdsourcing modeling.


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A Fine-Grained Domain Adaption Model for Joint Word Segmentation and POS Tagging
Peijie Jiang | Dingkun Long | Yueheng Sun | Meishan Zhang | Guangwei Xu | Pengjun Xie
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Domain adaption for word segmentation and POS tagging is a challenging problem for Chinese lexical processing. Self-training is one promising solution for it, which struggles to construct a set of high-quality pseudo training instances for the target domain. Previous work usually assumes a universal source-to-target adaption to collect such pseudo corpus, ignoring the different gaps from the target sentences to the source domain. In this work, we start from joint word segmentation and POS tagging, presenting a fine-grained domain adaption method to model the gaps accurately. We measure the gaps by one simple and intuitive metric, and adopt it to develop a pseudo target domain corpus based on fine-grained subdomains incrementally. A novel domain-mixed representation learning model is proposed accordingly to encode the multiple subdomains effectively. The whole process is performed progressively for both corpus construction and model training. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset show that our method can gain significant improvements over a vary of baselines. Extensive analyses are performed to show the advantages of our final domain adaption model as well.

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Few-NERD: A Few-shot Named Entity Recognition Dataset
Ning Ding | Guangwei Xu | Yulin Chen | Xiaobin Wang | Xu Han | Pengjun Xie | Haitao Zheng | Zhiyuan Liu
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Recently, considerable literature has grown up around the theme of few-shot named entity recognition (NER), but little published benchmark data specifically focused on the practical and challenging task. Current approaches collect existing supervised NER datasets and re-organize them to the few-shot setting for empirical study. These strategies conventionally aim to recognize coarse-grained entity types with few examples, while in practice, most unseen entity types are fine-grained. In this paper, we present Few-NERD, a large-scale human-annotated few-shot NER dataset with a hierarchy of 8 coarse-grained and 66 fine-grained entity types. Few-NERD consists of 188,238 sentences from Wikipedia, 4,601,160 words are included and each is annotated as context or a part of the two-level entity type. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first few-shot NER dataset and the largest human-crafted NER dataset. We construct benchmark tasks with different emphases to comprehensively assess the generalization capability of models. Extensive empirical results and analysis show that Few-NERD is challenging and the problem requires further research. The Few-NERD dataset and the baselines will be publicly available to facilitate the research on this problem.

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Crowdsourcing Learning as Domain Adaptation: A Case Study on Named Entity Recognition
Xin Zhang | Guangwei Xu | Yueheng Sun | Meishan Zhang | Pengjun Xie
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Crowdsourcing is regarded as one prospective solution for effective supervised learning, aiming to build large-scale annotated training data by crowd workers. Previous studies focus on reducing the influences from the noises of the crowdsourced annotations for supervised models. We take a different point in this work, regarding all crowdsourced annotations as gold-standard with respect to the individual annotators. In this way, we find that crowdsourcing could be highly similar to domain adaptation, and then the recent advances of cross-domain methods can be almost directly applied to crowdsourcing. Here we take named entity recognition (NER) as a study case, suggesting an annotator-aware representation learning model that inspired by the domain adaptation methods which attempt to capture effective domain-aware features. We investigate both unsupervised and supervised crowdsourcing learning, assuming that no or only small-scale expert annotations are available. Experimental results on a benchmark crowdsourced NER dataset show that our method is highly effective, leading to a new state-of-the-art performance. In addition, under the supervised setting, we can achieve impressive performance gains with only a very small scale of expert annotations.


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Hierarchy-Aware Global Model for Hierarchical Text Classification
Jie Zhou | Chunping Ma | Dingkun Long | Guangwei Xu | Ning Ding | Haoyu Zhang | Pengjun Xie | Gongshen Liu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Hierarchical text classification is an essential yet challenging subtask of multi-label text classification with a taxonomic hierarchy. Existing methods have difficulties in modeling the hierarchical label structure in a global view. Furthermore, they cannot make full use of the mutual interactions between the text feature space and the label space. In this paper, we formulate the hierarchy as a directed graph and introduce hierarchy-aware structure encoders for modeling label dependencies. Based on the hierarchy encoder, we propose a novel end-to-end hierarchy-aware global model (HiAGM) with two variants. A multi-label attention variant (HiAGM-LA) learns hierarchy-aware label embeddings through the hierarchy encoder and conducts inductive fusion of label-aware text features. A text feature propagation model (HiAGM-TP) is proposed as the deductive variant that directly feeds text features into hierarchy encoders. Compared with previous works, both HiAGM-LA and HiAGM-TP achieve significant and consistent improvements on three benchmark datasets.

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Coupling Distant Annotation and Adversarial Training for Cross-Domain Chinese Word Segmentation
Ning Ding | Dingkun Long | Guangwei Xu | Muhua Zhu | Pengjun Xie | Xiaobin Wang | Haitao Zheng
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Fully supervised neural approaches have achieved significant progress in the task of Chinese word segmentation (CWS). Nevertheless, the performance of supervised models always drops gravely if the domain shifts due to the distribution gap across domains and the out of vocabulary (OOV) problem. In order to simultaneously alleviate the issues, this paper intuitively couples distant annotation and adversarial training for cross-domain CWS. 1) We rethink the essence of “Chinese words” and design an automatic distant annotation mechanism, which does not need any supervision or pre-defined dictionaries on the target domain. The method could effectively explore domain-specific words and distantly annotate the raw texts for the target domain. 2) We further develop a sentence-level adversarial training procedure to perform noise reduction and maximum utilization of the source domain information. Experiments on multiple real-world datasets across various domains show the superiority and robustness of our model, significantly outperforming previous state-of-the-arts cross-domain CWS methods.


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A Hybrid System for Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis and Correction
Chen Li | Junpei Zhou | Zuyi Bao | Hengyou Liu | Guangwei Xu | Linlin Li
Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Natural Language Processing Techniques for Educational Applications

This paper introduces the DM_NLP team’s system for NLPTEA 2018 shared task of Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis (CGED), which can be used to detect and correct grammatical errors in texts written by Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners. This task aims at not only detecting four types of grammatical errors including redundant words (R), missing words (M), bad word selection (S) and disordered words (W), but also recommending corrections for errors of M and S types. We proposed a hybrid system including four models for this task with two stages: the detection stage and the correction stage. In the detection stage, we first used a BiLSTM-CRF model to tag potential errors by sequence labeling, along with some handcraft features. Then we designed three Grammatical Error Correction (GEC) models to generate corrections, which could help to tune the detection result. In the correction stage, candidates were generated by the three GEC models and then merged to output the final corrections for M and S types. Our system reached the highest precision in the correction subtask, which was the most challenging part of this shared task, and got top 3 on F1 scores for position detection of errors.


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Alibaba at IJCNLP-2017 Task 1: Embedding Grammatical Features into LSTMs for Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis Task
Yi Yang | Pengjun Xie | Jun Tao | Guangwei Xu | Linlin Li | Luo Si
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, Shared Tasks

This paper introduces Alibaba NLP team system on IJCNLP 2017 shared task No. 1 Chinese Grammatical Error Diagnosis (CGED). The task is to diagnose four types of grammatical errors which are redundant words (R), missing words (M), bad word selection (S) and disordered words (W). We treat the task as a sequence tagging problem and design some handcraft features to solve it. Our system is mainly based on the LSTM-CRF model and 3 ensemble strategies are applied to improve the performance. At the identification level and the position level our system gets the highest F1 scores. At the position level, which is the most difficult level, we perform best on all metrics.