Guangxiang Zhao


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Delving into the Openness of CLIP
Shuhuai Ren | Lei Li | Xuancheng Ren | Guangxiang Zhao | Xu Sun
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) formulates image classification as an image-to-text matching task, i.e., matching images to the corresponding natural language descriptions instead of discrete category IDs. This allows for open-vocabulary visual recognition, where the model can recognize images from an open class set (also known as an open vocabulary) in a zero-shot manner. However, evaluating the openness of CLIP-like models is challenging, as the models are open to arbitrary vocabulary in theory, but their accuracy varies in practice. To address this, we resort to an incremental perspective to assess the openness through vocabulary expansions, and define extensibility to measure a model’s ability to handle novel classes. Our evaluation shows that CLIP-like models are not truly open, and their performance deteriorates as the vocabulary expands. We further dissect the feature space of CLIP from the perspectives of representation alignment and uniformity. Our investigation reveals that the overestimation of openness is due to confusion among competing text features, rather than a failure to capture the similarity between image features and text features of novel classes. We hope that our investigation and analysis will facilitate future research on the CLIP openness issue.


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From Mimicking to Integrating: Knowledge Integration for Pre-Trained Language Models
Lei Li | Yankai Lin | Xuancheng Ren | Guangxiang Zhao | Peng Li | Jie Zhou | Xu Sun
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Investigating better ways to reuse the released pre-trained language models (PLMs) can significantly reduce the computational cost and the potential environmental side-effects. This paper explores a novel PLM reuse paradigm, Knowledge Integration (KI). Without human annotations available, KI aims to merge the knowledge from different teacher-PLMs, each of which specializes in a different classification problem, into a versatile student model. To achieve this, we first derive the correlation between virtual golden supervision and teacher predictions. We then design a Model Uncertainty–aware Knowledge Integration (MUKI) framework to recover the golden supervision for the student. Specifically, MUKI adopts Monte-Carlo Dropout to estimate model uncertainty for the supervision integration. An instance-wise re-weighting mechanism based on the margin of uncertainty scores is further incorporated, to deal with the potential conflicting supervision from teachers. Experimental results demonstrate that MUKI achieves substantial improvements over baselines on benchmark datasets. Further analysis shows that MUKI can generalize well for merging teacher models with heterogeneous architectures, and even teachers major in cross-lingual datasets.


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Learning Relation Alignment for Calibrated Cross-modal Retrieval
Shuhuai Ren | Junyang Lin | Guangxiang Zhao | Rui Men | An Yang | Jingren Zhou | Xu Sun | Hongxia Yang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Despite the achievements of large-scale multimodal pre-training approaches, cross-modal retrieval, e.g., image-text retrieval, remains a challenging task. To bridge the semantic gap between the two modalities, previous studies mainly focus on word-region alignment at the object level, lacking the matching between the linguistic relation among the words and the visual relation among the regions. The neglect of such relation consistency impairs the contextualized representation of image-text pairs and hinders the model performance and the interpretability. In this paper, we first propose a novel metric, Intra-modal Self-attention Distance (ISD), to quantify the relation consistency by measuring the semantic distance between linguistic and visual relations. In response, we present Inter-modal Alignment on Intra-modal Self-attentions (IAIS), a regularized training method to optimize the ISD and calibrate intra-modal self-attentions from the two modalities mutually via inter-modal alignment. The IAIS regularizer boosts the performance of prevailing models on Flickr30k and MS COCO datasets by a considerable margin, which demonstrates the superiority of our approach.


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Review-Driven Multi-Label Music Style Classification by Exploiting Style Correlations
Guangxiang Zhao | Jingjing Xu | Qi Zeng | Xuancheng Ren | Xu Sun
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

This paper explores a new natural languageprocessing task, review-driven multi-label musicstyle classification. This task requires systemsto identify multiple styles of music basedon its reviews on websites. The biggest challengelies in the complicated relations of musicstyles. To tackle this problem, we proposea novel deep learning approach to automaticallylearn and exploit style correlations. Experiment results show that our approachachieves large improvements over baselines onthe proposed dataset. Furthermore, the visualizedanalysis shows that our approach performswell in capturing style correlations.