Guillaume Bernard


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Analyzing BERT Cross-lingual Transfer Capabilities in Continual Sequence Labeling
Juan Manuel Coria | Mathilde Veron | Sahar Ghannay | Guillaume Bernard | Hervé Bredin | Olivier Galibert | Sophie Rosset
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Performance and Interpretability Evaluations of Multimodal, Multipurpose, Massive-Scale Models

Knowledge transfer between neural language models is a widely used technique that has proven to improve performance in a multitude of natural language tasks, in particular with the recent rise of large pre-trained language models like BERT. Similarly, high cross-lingual transfer has been shown to occur in multilingual language models. Hence, it is of great importance to better understand this phenomenon as well as its limits. While most studies about cross-lingual transfer focus on training on independent and identically distributed (i.e. i.i.d.) samples, in this paper we study cross-lingual transfer in a continual learning setting on two sequence labeling tasks: slot-filling and named entity recognition. We investigate this by training multilingual BERT on sequences of 9 languages, one language at a time, on the MultiATIS++ and MultiCoNER corpora. Our first findings are that forward transfer between languages is retained although forgetting is present. Additional experiments show that lost performance can be recovered with as little as a single training epoch even if forgetting was high, which can be explained by a progressive shift of model parameters towards a better multilingual initialization. We also find that commonly used metrics might be insufficient to assess continual learning performance.

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Attention Modulation for Zero-Shot Cross-Domain Dialogue State Tracking
Mathilde Veron | Olivier Galibert | Guillaume Bernard | Sophie Rosset
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Computational Approaches to Discourse

Dialog state tracking (DST) is a core step for task-oriented dialogue systems aiming to track the user’s current goal during a dialogue. Recently a special focus has been put on applying existing DST models to new domains, in other words performing zero-shot cross-domain transfer. While recent state-of-the-art models leverage large pre-trained language models, no work has been made on understanding and improving the results of first developed zero-shot models like SUMBT. In this paper, we thus propose to improve SUMBT zero-shot results on MultiWOZ by using attention modulation during inference. This method improves SUMBT zero-shot results significantly on two domains and does not worsen the initial performance with the great advantage of needing no additional training.


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Matics Software Suite: New Tools for Evaluation and Data Exploration
Olivier Galibert | Guillaume Bernard | Agnes Delaborde | Sabrina Lecadre | Juliette Kahn
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


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LNE-Visu : a tool to explore and visualize multimedia data
Guillaume Bernard | Juliette Kahn | Olivier Galibert | Rémi Regnier | Séverine Demeyer
Actes de la conférence conjointe JEP-TALN-RECITAL 2016. volume 5 : Démonstrations

LNE-Visu : a tool to explore and visualize multimedia data LNE-Visu is a tool to explore and visualize multimedia data created for the LNE evaluation campaigns. 3 functionalities are available: explore and select data, visualize and listen data, apply significance tests

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FABIOLE, a Speech Database for Forensic Speaker Comparison
Moez Ajili | Jean-François Bonastre | Juliette Kahn | Solange Rossato | Guillaume Bernard
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

A speech database has been collected for use to highlight the importance of “speaker factor” in forensic voice comparison. FABIOLE has been created during the FABIOLE project funded by the French Research Agency (ANR) from 2013 to 2016. This corpus consists in more than 3 thousands excerpts spoken by 130 French native male speakers. The speakers are divided into two categories: 30 target speakers who everyone has 100 excerpts and 100 “impostors” who everyone has only one excerpt. The data were collected from 10 different French radio and television shows where each utterance turns with a minimum duration of 30s and has a good speech quality. The data set is mainly used for investigating speaker factor in forensic voice comparison and interpreting some unsolved issue such as the relationship between speaker characteristics and system behavior. In this paper, we present FABIOLE database. Then, preliminary experiments are performed to evaluate the effect of the “speaker factor” and the show on a voice comparison system behavior.


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A Question-answer Distance Measure to Investigate QA System Progress
Guillaume Bernard | Sophie Rosset | Martine Adda-Decker | Olivier Galibert
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'10)

The performance of question answering system is evaluated through successive evaluations campaigns. A set of questions are given to the participating systems which are to find the correct answer in a collection of documents. The creation process of the questions may change from one evaluation to the next. This may entail an uncontroled question difficulty shift. For the QAst 2009 evaluation campaign, a new procedure was adopted to build the questions. Comparing results of QAst 2008 and QAst 2009 evaluations, a strong performance loss could be measured in 2009 for French and English, while the Spanish systems globally made progress. The measured loss might be related to this new way of elaborating questions. The general purpose of this paper is to propose a measure to calibrate the difficulty of a question set. In particular, a reasonable measure should output higher values for 2009 than for 2008. The proposed measure relies on a distance measure between the critical elements of a question and those of the associated correct answer. An increase of the proposed distance measure for French and English 2009 evaluations as compared to 2008 could be established. This increase correlates with the previously observed degraded performances. We conclude on the potential of this evaluation criterion: the importance of such a measure for the elaboration of new question corpora for questions answering systems and a tool to control the level of difficulty for successive evaluation campaigns.


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Méthode de réordonnancement de réponses par transformation d’arbres : présentation et analyse des résultats
Guillaume Bernard
Actes de la 15ème conférence sur le Traitement Automatique des Langues Naturelles. REncontres jeunes Chercheurs en Informatique pour le Traitement Automatique des Langues

Dans cet article nous présentons une évaluation et une analyse des résultats d’une méthode de réordonnancement de réponses pour un système de questions-réponses. Cette méthode propose une sélection des réponses candidates à une question en calculant un coût par transformation d’arbres. Nous présentons une analyse des résultats obtenus sur le corpus Clef 2004-2005 et nos conclusions sur les voies d’amélioration possibles pour notre système.