Fast and reliable evaluation metrics are key to R&D progress. While traditional natural language generation metrics are fast, they are not very reliable. Conversely, new metrics based on large pretrained language models are much more reliable, but require significant computational resources. In this paper, we propose FrugalScore, an approach to learn a fixed, low cost version of any expensive NLG metric, while retaining most of its original performance. Experiments with BERTScore and MoverScore on summarization and translation show that FrugalScore is on par with the original metrics (and sometimes better), while having several orders of magnitude less parameters and running several times faster. On average over all learned metrics, tasks, and variants, FrugalScore retains 96.8% of the performance, runs 24 times faster, and has 35 times less parameters than the original metrics. We make our trained metrics publicly available, to benefit the entire NLP community and in particular researchers and practitioners with limited resources.
Recent work in Dialogue Act (DA) classification approaches the task as a sequence labeling problem, using neural network models coupled with a Conditional Random Field (CRF) as the last layer. CRF models the conditional probability of the target DA label sequence given the input utterance sequence. However, the task involves another important input sequence, that of speakers, which is ignored by previous work. To address this limitation, this paper proposes a simple modification of the CRF layer that takes speaker-change into account. Experiments on the SwDA corpus show that our modified CRF layer outperforms the original one, with very wide margins for some DA labels. Further, visualizations demonstrate that our CRF layer can learn meaningful, sophisticated transition patterns between DA label pairs conditioned on speaker-change in an end-to-end way. Code is publicly available.
Abstractive community detection is an important spoken language understanding task, whose goal is to group utterances in a conversation according to whether they can be jointly summarized by a common abstractive sentence. This paper provides a novel approach to this task. We first introduce a neural contextual utterance encoder featuring three types of self-attention mechanisms. We then train it using the siamese and triplet energy-based meta-architectures. Experiments on the AMI corpus show that our system outperforms multiple energy-based and non-energy based baselines from the state-of-the-art. Code and data are publicly available.
We introduce a novel graph-based framework for abstractive meeting speech summarization that is fully unsupervised and does not rely on any annotations. Our work combines the strengths of multiple recent approaches while addressing their weaknesses. Moreover, we leverage recent advances in word embeddings and graph degeneracy applied to NLP to take exterior semantic knowledge into account, and to design custom diversity and informativeness measures. Experiments on the AMI and ICSI corpus show that our system improves on the state-of-the-art. Code and data are publicly available, and our system can be interactively tested.