Guoyin Wang


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Ranking-Enhanced Unsupervised Sentence Representation Learning
Yeon Seonwoo | Guoyin Wang | Changmin Seo | Sajal Choudhary | Jiwei Li | Xiang Li | Puyang Xu | Sunghyun Park | Alice Oh
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Unsupervised sentence representation learning has progressed through contrastive learning and data augmentation methods such as dropout masking. Despite this progress, sentence encoders are still limited to using only an input sentence when predicting its semantic vector. In this work, we show that the semantic meaning of a sentence is also determined by nearest-neighbor sentences that are similar to the input sentence. Based on this finding, we propose a novel unsupervised sentence encoder, RankEncoder. RankEncoder predicts the semantic vector of an input sentence by leveraging its relationship with other sentences in an external corpus, as well as the input sentence itself. We evaluate RankEncoder on semantic textual benchmark datasets. From the experimental results, we verify that 1) RankEncoder achieves 80.07% Spearman’s correlation, a 1.1% absolute improvement compared to the previous state-of-the-art performance, 2) RankEncoder is universally applicable to existing unsupervised sentence embedding methods, and 3) RankEncoder is specifically effective for predicting the similarity scores of similar sentence pairs.

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ReAugKD: Retrieval-Augmented Knowledge Distillation For Pre-trained Language Models
Jianyi Zhang | Aashiq Muhamed | Aditya Anantharaman | Guoyin Wang | Changyou Chen | Kai Zhong | Qingjun Cui | Yi Xu | Belinda Zeng | Trishul Chilimbi | Yiran Chen
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Knowledge Distillation (KD) is one of the most effective approaches to deploying large-scale pre-trained language models in low-latency environments by transferring the knowledge contained in the large-scale models to smaller student models. Prior KD approaches use the soft labels and intermediate activations generated by the teacher to transfer knowledge to the student model parameters alone. In this paper, we show that having access to non-parametric memory in the form of a knowledge base with the teacher’s soft labels and predictions can further improve student generalization. To enable the student to retrieve from the knowledge base effectively, we propose a new framework and loss function that preserves the semantic similarities of teacher and student training examples. We show through extensive experiments that our retrieval mechanism can achieve state-of-the-art performance for task-specific knowledge distillation on the GLUE benchmark.

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GNN-SL: Sequence Labeling Based on Nearest Examples via GNN
Shuhe Wang | Yuxian Meng | Rongbin Ouyang | Jiwei Li | Tianwei Zhang | Lingjuan Lyu | Guoyin Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2023

To better handle long-tail cases in the sequence labeling (SL) task, in this work, we introduce graph neural networks sequence labeling (GNN-SL), which augments the vanilla SL model output with similar tagging examples retrieved from the whole training set. Since not all the retrieved tagging examples benefit the model prediction, we construct a heterogeneous graph, and leverage graph neural networks (GNNs) to transfer information between the retrieved tagging examples and the input word sequence. The augmented node which aggregates information from neighbors is used to do prediction. This strategy enables the model to directly acquire similar tagging examples and improves the general quality of predictions. We conduct a variety of experiments on three typical sequence labeling tasks: Named Entity Recognition (NER), Part of Speech Tagging (POS), and Chinese Word Segmentation (CWS) to show the significant performance of our GNN-SL. Notably, GNN-SL achieves SOTA results of 96.9 (+0.2) on PKU, 98.3 (+0.4) on CITYU, 98.5 (+0.2) on MSR, and 96.9 (+0.2) on AS for the CWS task, and resultscomparable to SOTA performances on NER datasets, and POS datasets.

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Text Classification via Large Language Models
Xiaofei Sun | Xiaoya Li | Jiwei Li | Fei Wu | Shangwei Guo | Tianwei Zhang | Guoyin Wang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Despite the remarkable success of large-scale Language Models (LLMs) such as GPT-3, their performances still significantly underperform fine-tuned models in the task of text classification.This is due to (1) the lack of reasoning ability in addressing complex linguistic phenomena (e.g., intensification, contrast, irony etc); (2) limited number of tokens allowed in in-context learning. In this paper, we introduce Clue And Reasoning Prompting (CARP). CARP adopts a progressive reasoning strategy tailored to addressing the complex linguistic phenomena involved in text classification: CARP first prompts LLMs to find superficial clues (e.g., keywords, tones, semantic relations, references, etc), based on which a diagnostic reasoning process is induced for final decisions. To further address the limited-token issue, CARP uses a fine-tuned model on the supervised dataset for kNN demonstration search in the in-context learning, allowing the model to take the advantage of both LLM’s generalization ability and the task-specific evidence provided by the full labeled dataset. Remarkably, CARP yields new SOTA performances on 4 out of 5 widely-used text-classification benchmarks, 97.39 (+1.24) on SST-2, 96.40 (+0.72) on AGNews, 98.78 (+0.25) on R8 and 96.95 (+0.6) on R52, and a performance comparable to SOTA on MR (92.39 v.s. 93.3). More importantly, we find that CARP delivers impressive abilities on low-resource and domain-adaptation setups. Specifically, using 16 examples per class, CARP achieves comparable performances to supervised models with 1,024 examples per class.

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OssCSE: Overcoming Surface Structure Bias in Contrastive Learning for Unsupervised Sentence Embedding
Zhan Shi | Guoyin Wang | Ke Bai | Jiwei Li | Xiang Li | Qingjun Cui | Belinda Zeng | Trishul Chilimbi | Xiaodan Zhu
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Contrastive learning has been demonstrated effective in unsupervised sentence representation learning. Given one sentence, positive pairs are obtained by passing the sentence to the encoder twice using the different dropout masks, and negative pairs are obtained by taking another sentence in the same mini-batch. However, the method suffers from the surface structure bias, i.e., sentences with similar surface structures will be regarded as close in semantics while sentences with dissimilar surface structures will be viewed as distinct in semantics. This leads to the result that paraphrasing a sentence that is dissimilar in surface structure will receive a lower semantic similarity score than inserting a negative word into the sentence. In this paper, we first verify the bias by collecting a sentence transformation testset. Then we systematically probe the existing models by proposing novel splits based on benchmark datasets in accordance with semantic and surface structure similarity. We tackle the bias in two aspects: balancing the learning target by augmenting with data that counters the bias, and meanwhile preserving word semantics by leveraging recall loss to prevent catastrophic forgetting. We evaluate our model on standard semantic textual similarity (STS) tasks using different pre-trained backbones and achieve state-of-the-art averaged performance across the STS benchmarks. Particularly, our models that are fine-tuned with RoBERTabase and RoBERTalarge achieve significantly better performance on most benchmark datasets.

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PK-ICR: Persona-Knowledge Interactive Multi-Context Retrieval for Grounded Dialogue
Minsik Oh | Joosung Lee | Jiwei Li | Guoyin Wang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Identifying relevant persona or knowledge for conversational systems is critical to grounded dialogue response generation. However, each grounding has been mostly researched in isolation with more practical multi-context dialogue tasks introduced in recent works. We define Persona and Knowledge Dual Context Identification as the task to identify persona and knowledge jointly for a given dialogue, which could be of elevated importance in complex multi-context dialogue settings. We develop a novel grounding retrieval method that utilizes all contexts of dialogue simultaneously. Our method requires less computational power via utilizing neural QA retrieval models. We further introduce our novel null-positive rank test which measures ranking performance on semantically dissimilar samples (i.e. hard negatives) in relation to data augmentation.


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An MRC Framework for Semantic Role Labeling
Nan Wang | Jiwei Li | Yuxian Meng | Xiaofei Sun | Han Qiu | Ziyao Wang | Guoyin Wang | Jun He
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Semantic Role Labeling (SRL) aims at recognizing the predicate-argument structure of a sentence and can be decomposed into two subtasks: predicate disambiguation and argument labeling. Prior work deals with these two tasks independently, which ignores the semantic connection between the two tasks. In this paper, we propose to use the machine reading comprehension (MRC) framework to bridge this gap. We formalize predicate disambiguation as multiple-choice machine reading comprehension, where the descriptions of candidate senses of a given predicate are used as options to select the correct sense. The chosen predicate sense is then used to determine the semantic roles for that predicate, and these semantic roles are used to construct the query for another MRC model for argument labeling. In this way, we are able to leverage both the predicate semantics and the semantic role semantics for argument labeling. We also propose to select a subset of all the possible semantic roles for computational efficiency. Experiments show that the proposed framework achieves state-of-the-art or comparable results to previous work.

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Open World Classification with Adaptive Negative Samples
Ke Bai | Guoyin Wang | Jiwei Li | Sunghyun Park | Sungjin Lee | Puyang Xu | Ricardo Henao | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Open world classification is a task in natural language processing with key practical relevance and impact. Since the open or unknown category data only manifests in the inference phase, finding a model with a suitable decision boundary accommodating for the identification of known classes and discrimination of the open category is challenging. The performance of existing models is limited by the lack of effective open category data during the training stage or the lack of a good mechanism to learn appropriate decision boundaries. We propose an approach based on Adaptive Negative Samples (ANS) designed to generate effective synthetic open category samples in the training stage and without requiring any prior knowledge or external datasets. Empirically, we find a significant advantage in using auxiliary one-versus-rest binary classifiers, which effectively utilize the generated negative samples and avoid the complex threshold-seeking stage in previous works. Extensive experiments on three benchmark datasets show that ANS achieves significant improvements over state-of-the-art methods.


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AugNLG: Few-shot Natural Language Generation using Self-trained Data Augmentation
Xinnuo Xu | Guoyin Wang | Young-Bum Kim | Sungjin Lee
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Natural Language Generation (NLG) is a key component in a task-oriented dialogue system, which converts the structured meaning representation (MR) to the natural language. For large-scale conversational systems, where it is common to have over hundreds of intents and thousands of slots, neither template-based approaches nor model-based approaches are scalable. Recently, neural NLGs started leveraging transfer learning and showed promising results in few-shot settings. This paper proposes AugNLG, a novel data augmentation approach that combines a self-trained neural retrieval model with a few-shot learned NLU model, to automatically create MR-to-Text data from open-domain texts. The proposed system mostly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on the FewshotWOZ data in both BLEU and Slot Error Rate. We further confirm improved results on the FewshotSGD data and provide comprehensive analysis results on key components of our system. Our code and data are available at

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Dialogue Response Generation via Contrastive Latent Representation Learning
Shuyang Dai | Guoyin Wang | Sunghyun Park | Sungjin Lee
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Natural Language Processing for Conversational AI

Large-scale auto-regressive models have achieved great success in dialogue response generation, with the help of Transformer layers. However, these models do not learn a representative latent space of the sentence distribution, making it hard to control the generation. Recent works have tried on learning sentence representations using Transformer-based framework, but do not model the context-response relationship embedded in the dialogue datasets. In this work, we aim to construct a robust sentence representation learning model, that is specifically designed for dialogue response generation, with Transformer-based encoder-decoder structure. An utterance-level contrastive learning is proposed, encoding predictive information in each context representation for its corresponding response. Extensive experiments are conducted to verify the robustness of the proposed representation learning mechanism. By using both reference-based and reference-free evaluation metrics, we provide detailed analysis on the generated sentences, demonstrating the effectiveness of our proposed model.


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Methods for Numeracy-Preserving Word Embeddings
Dhanasekar Sundararaman | Shijing Si | Vivek Subramanian | Guoyin Wang | Devamanyu Hazarika | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Word embedding models are typically able to capture the semantics of words via the distributional hypothesis, but fail to capture the numerical properties of numbers that appear in the text. This leads to problems with numerical reasoning involving tasks such as question answering. We propose a new methodology to assign and learn embeddings for numbers. Our approach creates Deterministic, Independent-of-Corpus Embeddings (the model is referred to as DICE) for numbers, such that their cosine similarity reflects the actual distance on the number line. DICE outperforms a wide range of pre-trained word embedding models across multiple examples of two tasks: (i) evaluating the ability to capture numeration and magnitude; and (ii) to perform list maximum, decoding, and addition. We further explore the utility of these embeddings in downstream tasks, by initializing numbers with our approach for the task of magnitude prediction. We also introduce a regularization approach to learn model-based embeddings of numbers in a contextual setting.

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POINTER: Constrained Progressive Text Generation via Insertion-based Generative Pre-training
Yizhe Zhang | Guoyin Wang | Chunyuan Li | Zhe Gan | Chris Brockett | Bill Dolan
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Large-scale pre-trained language models, such as BERT and GPT-2, have achieved excellent performance in language representation learning and free-form text generation. However, these models cannot be directly employed to generate text under specified lexical constraints. To address this challenge, we present POINTER (PrOgressive INsertion-based TransformER), a simple yet novel insertion-based approach for hard-constrained text generation. The proposed method operates by progressively inserting new tokens between existing tokens in a parallel manner. This procedure is recursively applied until a sequence is completed. The resulting coarse-to-fine hierarchy makes the generation process intuitive and interpretable. We pre-train our model with the proposed progressive insertion-based objective on a 12GB Wikipedia dataset, and fine-tune it on downstream hard-constrained generation tasks. Non-autoregressive decoding yields a logarithmic time complexity during inference time. Experimental results on both News and Yelp datasets demonstrate that Pointer achieves state-of-the-art performance on constrained text generation. We released the pre-trained models and the source code to facilitate future research.

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Improving Text Generation with Student-Forcing Optimal Transport
Jianqiao Li | Chunyuan Li | Guoyin Wang | Hao Fu | Yuhchen Lin | Liqun Chen | Yizhe Zhang | Chenyang Tao | Ruiyi Zhang | Wenlin Wang | Dinghan Shen | Qian Yang | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Neural language models are often trained with maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), where the next word is generated conditioned on the ground-truth word tokens. During testing, however, the model is instead conditioned on previously generated tokens, resulting in what is termed exposure bias. To reduce this gap between training and testing, we propose using optimal transport (OT) to match the sequences generated in these two modes. We examine the necessity of adding Student-Forcing scheme during training with an imitation learning interpretation. An extension is further proposed to improve the OT learning for long sequences, based on the structural and contextual information of the text sequences. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated on machine translation, text summarization, and text generation tasks.

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Improving Adversarial Text Generation by Modeling the Distant Future
Ruiyi Zhang | Changyou Chen | Zhe Gan | Wenlin Wang | Dinghan Shen | Guoyin Wang | Zheng Wen | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Auto-regressive text generation models usually focus on local fluency, and may cause inconsistent semantic meaning in long text generation. Further, automatically generating words with similar semantics is challenging, and hand-crafted linguistic rules are difficult to apply. We consider a text planning scheme and present a model-based imitation-learning approach to alleviate the aforementioned issues. Specifically, we propose a novel guider network to focus on the generative process over a longer horizon, which can assist next-word prediction and provide intermediate rewards for generator optimization. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method leads to improved performance.

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Integrating Task Specific Information into Pretrained Language Models for Low Resource Fine Tuning
Rui Wang | Shijing Si | Guoyin Wang | Lei Zhang | Lawrence Carin | Ricardo Henao
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2020

Pretrained Language Models (PLMs) have improved the performance of natural language understanding in recent years. Such models are pretrained on large corpora, which encode the general prior knowledge of natural languages but are agnostic to information characteristic of downstream tasks. This often results in overfitting when fine-tuned with low resource datasets where task-specific information is limited. In this paper, we integrate label information as a task-specific prior into the self-attention component of pretrained BERT models. Experiments on several benchmarks and real-word datasets suggest that the proposed approach can largely improve the performance of pretrained models when fine-tuning with small datasets.


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Improving Textual Network Embedding with Global Attention via Optimal Transport
Liqun Chen | Guoyin Wang | Chenyang Tao | Dinghan Shen | Pengyu Cheng | Xinyuan Zhang | Wenlin Wang | Yizhe Zhang | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Constituting highly informative network embeddings is an essential tool for network analysis. It encodes network topology, along with other useful side information, into low dimensional node-based feature representations that can be exploited by statistical modeling. This work focuses on learning context-aware network embeddings augmented with text data. We reformulate the network embedding problem, and present two novel strategies to improve over traditional attention mechanisms: (i) a content-aware sparse attention module based on optimal transport; and (ii) a high-level attention parsing module. Our approach yields naturally sparse and self-normalized relational inference. It can capture long-term interactions between sequences, thus addressing the challenges faced by existing textual network embedding schemes. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate our model can consistently outperform alternative state-of-the-art methods.

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An End-to-End Generative Architecture for Paraphrase Generation
Qian Yang | Zhouyuan Huo | Dinghan Shen | Yong Cheng | Wenlin Wang | Guoyin Wang | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP)

Generating high-quality paraphrases is a fundamental yet challenging natural language processing task. Despite the effectiveness of previous work based on generative models, there remain problems with exposure bias in recurrent neural networks, and often a failure to generate realistic sentences. To overcome these challenges, we propose the first end-to-end conditional generative architecture for generating paraphrases via adversarial training, which does not depend on extra linguistic information. Extensive experiments on four public datasets demonstrate the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art results, outperforming previous generative architectures on both automatic metrics (BLEU, METEOR, and TER) and human evaluations.

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Topic-Guided Variational Auto-Encoder for Text Generation
Wenlin Wang | Zhe Gan | Hongteng Xu | Ruiyi Zhang | Guoyin Wang | Dinghan Shen | Changyou Chen | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

We propose a topic-guided variational auto-encoder (TGVAE) model for text generation. Distinct from existing variational auto-encoder (VAE) based approaches, which assume a simple Gaussian prior for latent code, our model specifies the prior as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) parametrized by a neural topic module. Each mixture component corresponds to a latent topic, which provides a guidance to generate sentences under the topic. The neural topic module and the VAE-based neural sequence module in our model are learned jointly. In particular, a sequence of invertible Householder transformations is applied to endow the approximate posterior of the latent code with high flexibility during the model inference. Experimental results show that our TGVAE outperforms its competitors on both unconditional and conditional text generation, which can also generate semantically-meaningful sentences with various topics.


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Baseline Needs More Love: On Simple Word-Embedding-Based Models and Associated Pooling Mechanisms
Dinghan Shen | Guoyin Wang | Wenlin Wang | Martin Renqiang Min | Qinliang Su | Yizhe Zhang | Chunyuan Li | Ricardo Henao | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Many deep learning architectures have been proposed to model the compositionality in text sequences, requiring substantial number of parameters and expensive computations. However, there has not been a rigorous evaluation regarding the added value of sophisticated compositional functions. In this paper, we conduct a point-by-point comparative study between Simple Word-Embedding-based Models (SWEMs), consisting of parameter-free pooling operations, relative to word-embedding-based RNN/CNN models. Surprisingly, SWEMs exhibit comparable or even superior performance in the majority of cases considered. Based upon this understanding, we propose two additional pooling strategies over learned word embeddings: (i) a max-pooling operation for improved interpretability; and (ii) a hierarchical pooling operation, which preserves spatial (n-gram) information within text sequences. We present experiments on 17 datasets encompassing three tasks: (i) (long) document classification; (ii) text sequence matching; and (iii) short text tasks, including classification and tagging.

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NASH: Toward End-to-End Neural Architecture for Generative Semantic Hashing
Dinghan Shen | Qinliang Su | Paidamoyo Chapfuwa | Wenlin Wang | Guoyin Wang | Ricardo Henao | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Semantic hashing has become a powerful paradigm for fast similarity search in many information retrieval systems. While fairly successful, previous techniques generally require two-stage training, and the binary constraints are handled ad-hoc. In this paper, we present an end-to-end Neural Architecture for Semantic Hashing (NASH), where the binary hashing codes are treated as Bernoulli latent variables. A neural variational inference framework is proposed for training, where gradients are directly backpropagated through the discrete latent variable to optimize the hash function. We also draw the connections between proposed method and rate-distortion theory, which provides a theoretical foundation for the effectiveness of our framework. Experimental results on three public datasets demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms several state-of-the-art models on both unsupervised and supervised scenarios.

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Joint Embedding of Words and Labels for Text Classification
Guoyin Wang | Chunyuan Li | Wenlin Wang | Yizhe Zhang | Dinghan Shen | Xinyuan Zhang | Ricardo Henao | Lawrence Carin
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Word embeddings are effective intermediate representations for capturing semantic regularities between words, when learning the representations of text sequences. We propose to view text classification as a label-word joint embedding problem: each label is embedded in the same space with the word vectors. We introduce an attention framework that measures the compatibility of embeddings between text sequences and labels. The attention is learned on a training set of labeled samples to ensure that, given a text sequence, the relevant words are weighted higher than the irrelevant ones. Our method maintains the interpretability of word embeddings, and enjoys a built-in ability to leverage alternative sources of information, in addition to input text sequences. Extensive results on the several large text datasets show that the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by a large margin, in terms of both accuracy and speed.