Gustavo Hernandez Abrego


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Sentence-T5: Scalable Sentence Encoders from Pre-trained Text-to-Text Models
Jianmo Ni | Gustavo Hernandez Abrego | Noah Constant | Ji Ma | Keith Hall | Daniel Cer | Yinfei Yang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: ACL 2022

We provide the first exploration of sentence embeddings from text-to-text transformers (T5) including the effects of scaling up sentence encoders to 11B parameters. Sentence embeddings are broadly useful for language processing tasks. While T5 achieves impressive performance on language tasks, it is unclear how to produce sentence embeddings from encoder-decoder models. We investigate three methods to construct Sentence-T5 (ST5) models: two utilize only the T5 encoder and one using the full T5 encoder-decoder. We establish a new sentence representation transfer benchmark, SentGLUE, which extends the SentEval toolkit to nine tasks from the GLUE benchmark. Our encoder-only models outperform the previous best models on both SentEval and SentGLUE transfer tasks, including semantic textual similarity (STS). Scaling up ST5 from millions to billions of parameters shown to consistently improve performance. Finally, our encoder-decoder method achieves a new state-of-the-art on STS when using sentence embeddings.

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Large Dual Encoders Are Generalizable Retrievers
Jianmo Ni | Chen Qu | Jing Lu | Zhuyun Dai | Gustavo Hernandez Abrego | Ji Ma | Vincent Zhao | Yi Luan | Keith Hall | Ming-Wei Chang | Yinfei Yang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

It has been shown that dual encoders trained on one domain often fail to generalize to other domains for retrieval tasks. One widespread belief is that the bottleneck layer of a dual encoder, where the final score is simply a dot-product between a query vector and a passage vector, is too limited compared to models with fine-grained interactions between the query and the passage. In this paper, we challenge this belief by scaling up the size of the dual encoder model while keeping the bottleneck layer as a single dot-product with a fixed size. With multi-stage training, scaling up the model size brings significant improvement on a variety of retrieval tasks, especially for out-of-domain generalization. We further analyze the impact of the bottleneck layer and demonstrate diminishing improvement when scaling up the embedding size. Experimental results show that our dual encoders, Generalizable T5-based dense Retrievers (GTR), outperform previous sparse and dense retrievers on the BEIR dataset significantly. Most surprisingly, our ablation study finds that GTR is very data efficient, as it only needs 10% of MS Marco supervised data to match the out-of-domain performance of using all supervised data.


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Multi-stage Training with Improved Negative Contrast for Neural Passage Retrieval
Jing Lu | Gustavo Hernandez Abrego | Ji Ma | Jianmo Ni | Yinfei Yang
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

In the context of neural passage retrieval, we study three promising techniques: synthetic data generation, negative sampling, and fusion. We systematically investigate how these techniques contribute to the performance of the retrieval system and how they complement each other. We propose a multi-stage framework comprising of pre-training with synthetic data, fine-tuning with labeled data, and negative sampling at both stages. We study six negative sampling strategies and apply them to the fine-tuning stage and, as a noteworthy novelty, to the synthetic data that we use for pre-training. Also, we explore fusion methods that combine negatives from different strategies. We evaluate our system using two passage retrieval tasks for open-domain QA and using MS MARCO. Our experiments show that augmenting the negative contrast in both stages is effective to improve passage retrieval accuracy and, importantly, they also show that synthetic data generation and negative sampling have additive benefits. Moreover, using the fusion of different kinds allows us to reach performance that establishes a new state-of-the-art level in two of the tasks we evaluated.


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Self-Supervised Learning for Pairwise Data Refinement
Gustavo Hernandez Abrego | Bowen Liang | Wei Wang | Zarana Parekh | Yinfei Yang | Yunhsuan Sung
Proceedings of the 1st Conference of the Asia-Pacific Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 10th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing

Pairwise data automatically constructed from weakly supervised signals has been widely used for training deep learning models. Pairwise datasets such as parallel texts can have uneven quality levels overall, but usually contain data subsets that are more useful as learning examples. We present two methods to refine data that are aimed to obtain that kind of subsets in a self-supervised way. Our methods are based on iteratively training dual-encoder models to compute similarity scores. We evaluate our methods on de-noising parallel texts and training neural machine translation models. We find that: (i) The self-supervised refinement achieves most machine translation gains in the first iteration, but following iterations further improve its intrinsic evaluation. (ii) Machine translations can improve the de-noising performance when combined with selection steps. (iii) Our methods are able to reach the performance of a supervised method. Being entirely self-supervised, our methods are well-suited to handle pairwise data without the need of prior knowledge or human annotations.

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Multilingual Universal Sentence Encoder for Semantic Retrieval
Yinfei Yang | Daniel Cer | Amin Ahmad | Mandy Guo | Jax Law | Noah Constant | Gustavo Hernandez Abrego | Steve Yuan | Chris Tar | Yun-hsuan Sung | Brian Strope | Ray Kurzweil
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

We present easy-to-use retrieval focused multilingual sentence embedding models, made available on TensorFlow Hub. The models embed text from 16 languages into a shared semantic space using a multi-task trained dual-encoder that learns tied cross-lingual representations via translation bridge tasks (Chidambaram et al., 2018). The models achieve a new state-of-the-art in performance on monolingual and cross-lingual semantic retrieval (SR). Competitive performance is obtained on the related tasks of translation pair bitext retrieval (BR) and retrieval question answering (ReQA). On transfer learning tasks, our multilingual embeddings approach, and in some cases exceed, the performance of English only sentence embeddings.


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Effective Parallel Corpus Mining using Bilingual Sentence Embeddings
Mandy Guo | Qinlan Shen | Yinfei Yang | Heming Ge | Daniel Cer | Gustavo Hernandez Abrego | Keith Stevens | Noah Constant | Yun-Hsuan Sung | Brian Strope | Ray Kurzweil
Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Research Papers

This paper presents an effective approach for parallel corpus mining using bilingual sentence embeddings. Our embedding models are trained to produce similar representations exclusively for bilingual sentence pairs that are translations of each other. This is achieved using a novel training method that introduces hard negatives consisting of sentences that are not translations but have some degree of semantic similarity. The quality of the resulting embeddings are evaluated on parallel corpus reconstruction and by assessing machine translation systems trained on gold vs. mined sentence pairs. We find that the sentence embeddings can be used to reconstruct the United Nations Parallel Corpus (Ziemski et al., 2016) at the sentence-level with a precision of 48.9% for en-fr and 54.9% for en-es. When adapted to document-level matching, we achieve a parallel document matching accuracy that is comparable to the significantly more computationally intensive approach of Uszkoreit et al. (2010). Using reconstructed parallel data, we are able to train NMT models that perform nearly as well as models trained on the original data (within 1-2 BLEU).