Haewoon Kwak


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ChatGPT Rates Natural Language Explanation Quality like Humans: But on Which Scales?
Fan Huang | Haewoon Kwak | Kunwoo Park | Jisun An
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

As AI becomes more integral in our lives, the need for transparency and responsibility grows. While natural language explanations (NLEs) are vital for clarifying the reasoning behind AI decisions, evaluating them through human judgments is complex and resource-intensive due to subjectivity and the need for fine-grained ratings. This study explores the alignment between ChatGPT and human assessments across multiple scales (i.e., binary, ternary, and 7-Likert scale). We sample 300 data instances from three NLE datasets and collect 900 human annotations for both informativeness and clarity scores as the text quality measurement. We further conduct paired comparison experiments under different ranges of subjectivity scores, where the baseline comes from 8,346 human annotations. Our results show that ChatGPT aligns better with humans in more coarse-grained scales. Also, paired comparisons and dynamic prompting (i.e., providing semantically similar examples in the prompt) improve the alignment. This research advances our understanding of large language models’ capabilities to assess the text explanation quality in different configurations for responsible AI development.


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Can we trust the evaluation on ChatGPT?
Rachith Aiyappa | Jisun An | Haewoon Kwak | Yong-yeol Ahn
Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Trustworthy Natural Language Processing (TrustNLP 2023)

ChatGPT, the first large language model with mass adoption, has demonstrated remarkableperformance in numerous natural language tasks. Despite its evident usefulness, evaluatingChatGPT’s performance in diverse problem domains remains challenging due to the closednature of the model and its continuous updates via Reinforcement Learning from HumanFeedback (RLHF). We highlight the issue of data contamination in ChatGPT evaluations, with a case study in stance detection. We discuss the challenge of preventing data contamination and ensuring fair model evaluation in the age of closed and continuously trained models.


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Predicting Anti-Asian Hateful Users on Twitter during COVID-19
Jisun An | Haewoon Kwak | Claire Seungeun Lee | Bogang Jun | Yong-Yeol Ahn
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2021

We investigate predictors of anti-Asian hate among Twitter users throughout COVID-19. With the rise of xenophobia and polarization that has accompanied widespread social media usage in many nations, online hate has become a major social issue, attracting many researchers. Here, we apply natural language processing techniques to characterize social media users who began to post anti-Asian hate messages during COVID-19. We compare two user groups—those who posted anti-Asian slurs and those who did not—with respect to a rich set of features measured with data prior to COVID-19 and show that it is possible to predict who later publicly posted anti-Asian slurs. Our analysis of predictive features underlines the potential impact of news media and information sources that report on online hate and calls for further investigation into the role of polarized communication networks and news media.


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What Was Written vs. Who Read It: News Media Profiling Using Text Analysis and Social Media Context
Ramy Baly | Georgi Karadzhov | Jisun An | Haewoon Kwak | Yoan Dinkov | Ahmed Ali | James Glass | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Predicting the political bias and the factuality of reporting of entire news outlets are critical elements of media profiling, which is an understudied but an increasingly important research direction. The present level of proliferation of fake, biased, and propagandistic content online has made it impossible to fact-check every single suspicious claim, either manually or automatically. Thus, it has been proposed to profile entire news outlets and to look for those that are likely to publish fake or biased content. This makes it possible to detect likely “fake news” the moment they are published, by simply checking the reliability of their source. From a practical perspective, political bias and factuality of reporting have a linguistic aspect but also a social context. Here, we study the impact of both, namely (i) what was written (i.e., what was published by the target medium, and how it describes itself in Twitter) vs. (ii) who reads it (i.e., analyzing the target medium’s audience on social media). We further study (iii) what was written about the target medium (in Wikipedia). The evaluation results show that what was written matters most, and we further show that putting all information sources together yields huge improvements over the current state-of-the-art.


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Tanbih: Get To Know What You Are Reading
Yifan Zhang | Giovanni Da San Martino | Alberto Barrón-Cedeño | Salvatore Romeo | Jisun An | Haewoon Kwak | Todor Staykovski | Israa Jaradat | Georgi Karadzhov | Ramy Baly | Kareem Darwish | James Glass | Preslav Nakov
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing and the 9th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (EMNLP-IJCNLP): System Demonstrations

We introduce Tanbih, a news aggregator with intelligent analysis tools to help readers understanding what’s behind a news story. Our system displays news grouped into events and generates media profiles that show the general factuality of reporting, the degree of propagandistic content, hyper-partisanship, leading political ideology, general frame of reporting, and stance with respect to various claims and topics of a news outlet. In addition, we automatically analyse each article to detect whether it is propagandistic and to determine its stance with respect to a number of controversial topics.


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SemAxis: A Lightweight Framework to Characterize Domain-Specific Word Semantics Beyond Sentiment
Jisun An | Haewoon Kwak | Yong-Yeol Ahn
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Because word semantics can substantially change across communities and contexts, capturing domain-specific word semantics is an important challenge. Here, we propose SemAxis, a simple yet powerful framework to characterize word semantics using many semantic axes in word-vector spaces beyond sentiment. We demonstrate that SemAxis can capture nuanced semantic representations in multiple online communities. We also show that, when the sentiment axis is examined, SemAxis outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches in building domain-specific sentiment lexicons.