Hafsteinn Einarsson


2024

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Gendered Grammar or Ingrained Bias? Exploring Gender Bias in Icelandic Language Models
Steinunn Rut Friðriksdóttir | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Large language models, trained on vast datasets, exhibit increased output quality in proportion to the amount of data that is used to train them. This data-driven learning process has brought forth a pressing issue where these models may not only reflect but also amplify gender bias, racism, religious prejudice, and queerphobia present in their training data that may not always be recent. This study explores gender bias in language models trained on Icelandic, focusing on occupation-related terms. Icelandic is a highly grammatically gendered language that favors the masculine when referring to groups of people with indeterminable genders. Our aim is to explore whether language models merely mirror gender distributions within the corresponding professions or if they exhibit biases tied to their grammatical genders. Results indicate a significant overall predisposition towards the masculine but specific occupation terms consistently lean toward a particular gender, indicating complex interplays of societal and linguistic influences.

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Good or Bad News? Exploring GPT-4 for Sentiment Analysis for Faroese on a Public News Corpora
Iben Nyholm Debess | Annika Simonsen | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC-COLING 2024)

Sentiment analysis in low-resource languages presents unique challenges that Large Language Models may help address. This study explores the efficacy of GPT-4 for sentiment analysis on Faroese news texts, an uncharted task for this language. On the basis of guidelines presented, the sentiment analysis was performed with a multi-class approach at the sentence and document level with 225 sentences analysed in 170 articles. When comparing GPT-4 to human annotators, we observe that GPT-4 performs remarkably well. We explored two prompt configurations and observed a benefit from having clear instructions for the sentiment analysis task, but no benefit from translating the articles to English before the sentiment analysis task. Our results indicate that GPT-4 can be considered as a valuable tool for generating Faroese test data. Furthermore, our investigation reveals the intricacy of news sentiment. This motivates a more nuanced approach going forward, and we suggest a multi-label approach for future research in this domain. We further explored the efficacy of GPT-4 in topic classification on news texts and observed more negative sentiments expressed in international than national news. Overall, this work demonstrates GPT-4’s proficiency on a novel task and its utility for augmenting resources in low-data languages.

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Beyond Error Categories: A Contextual Approach of Evaluating Emerging Spell and Grammar Checkers
Þórunn Arnardóttir | Svanhvít Lilja Ingólfsdóttir | Haukur Barri Símonarson | Hafsteinn Einarsson | Anton Karl Ingason | Vilhjálmur Þorsteinsson
Proceedings of the 3rd Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Under-resourced Languages @ LREC-COLING 2024

Automatic spell and grammar checking can be done using various system architectures, and large language models have recently been used to solve the task with promising results. Here we describe a new method of creating test data to measure the performance of spell and grammar checkers, including large language models. Three types of test data represent different approaches to evaluation, from basic error detection to error correction with natural language explanations of the corrections made and error severity scores, which is the main novelty of this approach. These additions are especially useful when evaluating large language models. We present a spell and grammar checking test set for Icelandic in which the described approach is applied. The data consists of whole texts instead of discrete sentences, which facilitates evaluating context awareness of models. The resulting test set can be used to compare different spell and grammar checkers and is published under permissive licenses.

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Applications of BERT Models Towards Automation of Clinical Coding in Icelandic
Haraldur Orri Hauksson | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2024

This study explores the potential of automating clinical coding in Icelandic, a language with limited digital resources, by leveraging over 25 years of electronic health records (EHR) from the Landspitali University Hospital. Traditionally a manual and error-prone task, clinical coding is essential for patient care, billing, and research. Our research delves into the effectiveness of Transformer-based models in automating this process. We investigate various model training strategies, including continued pretraining and model adaptation, under a constrained computational budget. Our findings reveal that the best-performing model achieves competitive results in both micro and macro F1 scores, with label attention contributing significantly to its success. The study also explores the possibility of training on unlabeled data. Our research provides valuable insights into the possibilities of using NLP for clinical coding in low-resource languages, demonstrating that small countries with unique languages and well-segmented healthcare records can achieve results comparable to those in higher-resourced languages.

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Ice and Fire: Dataset on Sentiment, Emotions, Toxicity, Sarcasm, Hate speech, Sympathy and More in Icelandic Blog Comments
Steinunn Rut Friðriksdóttir | Annika Simonsen | Atli Snær Ásmundsson | Guðrún Lilja Friðjónsdóttir | Anton Karl Ingason | Vésteinn Snæbjarnarson | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Threat, Aggression & Cyberbullying @ LREC-COLING-2024

This study introduces “Ice and Fire,” a Multi-Task Learning (MTL) dataset tailored for sentiment analysis in the Icelandic language, encompassing a wide range of linguistic tasks, including sentiment and emotion detection, as well as identification of toxicity, hate speech, encouragement, sympathy, sarcasm/irony, and trolling. With 261 fully annotated blog comments and 1045 comments annotated in at least one task, this contribution marks a significant step forward in the field of Icelandic natural language processing. It provides a comprehensive dataset for understanding the nuances of online communication in Icelandic and an interface to expand the annotation effort. Despite the challenges inherent in subjective interpretation of text, our findings highlight the positive potential of this dataset to improve text analysis techniques and encourage more inclusive online discourse in Icelandic communities. With promising baseline performances, “Ice and Fire” sets the stage for future research to enhance automated text analysis and develop sophisticated language technologies, contributing to healthier online environments and advancing Icelandic language resources.

2023

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GameQA: Gamified Mobile App Platform for Building Multiple-Domain Question-Answering Datasets
Njall Skarphedinsson | Breki Gudmundsson | Steinar Smari | Marta Kristin Larusdottir | Hafsteinn Einarsson | Abuzar Khan | Eric Nyberg | Hrafn Loftsson
Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

The methods used to create many of the well-known Question-Answering (QA) datasets are hard to replicate for low-resource languages. A commonality amongst these methods is hiring annotators to source answers from the internet by querying a single answer source, such as Wikipedia. Applying these methods for low-resource languages can be problematic since there is no single large answer source for these languages. Consequently, this can result in a high ratio of unanswered questions, since the amount of information in any single source is limited. To address this problem, we developed a novel crowd-sourcing platform to gather multiple-domain QA data for low-resource languages. Our platform, which consists of a mobile app and a web API, gamifies the data collection process. We successfully released the app for Icelandic (a low-resource language with about 350,000 native speakers) to build a dataset which rivals large QA datasets for high-resource languages both in terms of size and ratio of answered questions. We have made the platform open source with instructions on how to localize and deploy it to gather data for other low-resource languages.

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Abstractive Text Summarization for Icelandic
Þór Sverrisson | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the 24th Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa)

In this work, we studied methods for automatic abstractive summarization in a low-resource setting using Icelandic text, which is morphologically rich and has limited data compared to languages such as English. We collected and published the first publicly available abstractive summarization dataset for Icelandic and used it for training and evaluation of our models. We found that using multilingual pre-training in this setting led to improved performance, with the multilingual mT5 model consistently outperforming a similar model pre-trained from scratch on Icelandic text only. Additionally, we explored the use of machine translations for fine-tuning data augmentation and found that fine-tuning on the augmented data followed by fine-tuning on Icelandic data improved the results. This work highlights the importance of both high-quality training data and multilingual pre-training in achieving effective abstractive summarization in low-resource languages.

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The Effect of Data Encoding on Relation Triplet Identification
Steinunn Friðriksdóttir | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the 24th Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa)

This paper presents a novel method for creating relation extraction data for low-resource languages. Relation extraction (RE) is a task in natural language processing that involves identifying and extracting meaningful relationships between entities in text. Despite the increasing need to extract relationships from unstructured text, the limited availability of annotated data in low-resource languages presents a significant challenge to the development of high-quality relation extraction models. Our method leverages existing methods for high-resource languages to create training data for low-resource languages. The proposed method is simple, efficient and has the potential to significantly improve the performance of relation extraction models for low-resource languages, making it a promising avenue for future research.

2022

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A Warm Start and a Clean Crawled Corpus - A Recipe for Good Language Models
Vésteinn Snæbjarnarson | Haukur Barri Símonarson | Pétur Orri Ragnarsson | Svanhvít Lilja Ingólfsdóttir | Haukur Jónsson | Vilhjalmur Thorsteinsson | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We train several language models for Icelandic, including IceBERT, that achieve state-of-the-art performance in a variety of downstream tasks, including part-of-speech tagging, named entity recognition, grammatical error detection and constituency parsing. To train the models we introduce a new corpus of Icelandic text, the Icelandic Common Crawl Corpus (IC3), a collection of high quality texts found online by targeting the Icelandic top-level-domain .is. Several other public data sources are also collected for a total of 16GB of Icelandic text. To enhance the evaluation of model performance and to raise the bar in baselines for Icelandic, we manually translate and adapt the WinoGrande commonsense reasoning dataset. Through these efforts we demonstrate that a properly cleaned crawled corpus is sufficient to achieve state-of-the-art results in NLP applications for low to medium resource languages, by comparison with models trained on a curated corpus. We further show that initializing models using existing multilingual models can lead to state-of-the-art results for some downstream tasks.

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Natural Questions in Icelandic
Vésteinn Snæbjarnarson | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

We present the first extractive question answering (QA) dataset for Icelandic, Natural Questions in Icelandic (NQiI). Developing such datasets is important for the development and evaluation of Icelandic QA systems. It also aids in the development of QA methods that need to work for a wide range of morphologically and grammatically different languages in a multilingual setting. The dataset was created by asking contributors to come up with questions they would like to know the answer to. Later, they were tasked with finding answers to each others questions following a previously published methodology. The questions are Natural in the sense that they are real questions posed out of interest in knowing the answer. The complete dataset contains 18 thousand labeled entries of which 5,568 are directly suitable for training an extractive QA system for Icelandic. The dataset is a valuable resource for Icelandic which we demonstrate by creating and evaluating a system capable of extractive QA in Icelandic.

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Cross-Lingual QA as a Stepping Stone for Monolingual Open QA in Icelandic
Vésteinn Snæbjarnarson | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the Workshop on Multilingual Information Access (MIA)

It can be challenging to build effective open question answering (open QA) systems for languages other than English, mainly due to a lack of labeled data for training. We present a data efficient method to bootstrap such a system for languages other than English. Our approach requires only limited QA resources in the given language, along with machine-translated data, and at least a bilingual language model. To evaluate our approach, we build such a system for the Icelandic language and evaluate performance over trivia style datasets. The corpora used for training are English in origin but machine translated into Icelandic. We train a bilingual Icelandic/English language model to embed English context and Icelandic questions following methodology introduced with DensePhrases (Lee et al., 2021). The resulting system is an open domain cross-lingual QA system between Icelandic and English. Finally, the system is adapted for Icelandic only open QA, demonstrating how it is possible to efficiently create an open QA system with limited access to curated datasets in the language of interest.

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Fictionary-Based Games for Language Resource Creation
Steinunn Rut Friðriksdóttir | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Novel Incentives in Data Collection from People: models, implementations, challenges and results within LREC 2022

In this paper, we present a novel approach to data collection for natural language processing (NLP), linguistic research and lexicographic work. Using the parlor game Fictionary as a framework, data can be crowd-sourced in a gamified manner, which carries the potential of faster, cheaper and better data when compared to traditional methods due to the engaging and competitive nature of the game. To improve data quality, the game includes a built-in review process where players review each other’s data and evaluate its quality. The paper proposes several games that can be used within this framework, and explains the value of the data generated by their use. These proposals include games that collect named entities along with their corresponding type tags, question-answer pairs, translation pairs and neologism, to name only a few. We are currently working on a digital platform that will host these games in Icelandic but wish to open the discussion around this topic and encourage other researchers to explore their own versions of the proposed games, all of which are language-independent.

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Building an Icelandic Entity Linking Corpus
Steinunn Rut Friðriksdóttir | Valdimar Ágúst Eggertsson | Benedikt Geir Jóhannesson | Hjalti Daníelsson | Hrafn Loftsson | Hafsteinn Einarsson
Proceedings of the Workshop on Dataset Creation for Lower-Resourced Languages within the 13th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

In this paper, we present the first Entity Linking corpus for Icelandic. We describe our approach of using a multilingual entity linking model (mGENRE) in combination with Wikipedia API Search (WAPIS) to label our data and compare it to an approach using WAPIS only. We find that our combined method reaches 53.9% coverage on our corpus, compared to 30.9% using only WAPIS. We analyze our results and explain the value of using a multilingual system when working with Icelandic. Additionally, we analyze the data that remain unlabeled, identify patterns and discuss why they may be more difficult to annotate.