Language models used in speech recognition are often either evaluated intrinsically using perplexity on test data, or extrinsically with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. The former evaluation does not always correlate well with ASR performance, while the latter could be specific to particular ASR systems. Recent work proposed to evaluate language models by using them to classify ground truth sentences among alternative phonetically similar sentences generated by a fine state transducer. Underlying such an evaluation is the assumption that the generated sentences are linguistically incorrect. In this paper, we first put this assumption into question, and observe that alternatively generated sentences could often be linguistically correct when they differ from the ground truth by only one edit. Secondly, we showed that by using multi-lingual BERT, we can achieve better performance than previous work on two code-switching data sets. Our implementation is publicly available on Github at https://github.com/sikfeng/language-modelling-for-code-switching.
Commits in version control systems (e.g. Git) track changes in a software project. Commits comprise noisy user-generated natural language and code patches. Automatic commit classification (CC) has been used to determine the type of code maintenance activities performed, as well as to detect bug fixes in code repositories. Much prior work occurs in the fully-supervised setting – a setting that can be a stretch in resource-scarce situations presenting difficulties in labeling commits. In this paper, we apply co-training, a semi-supervised learning method, to take advantage of the two views available – the commit message (natural language) and the code changes (programming language) – to improve commit classification.
There has been much interest in rumor detection using deep learning models in recent years. A well-known limitation of deep learning models is that they tend to learn superficial patterns, which restricts their generalization ability. We find that this is also true for cross-topic rumor detection. In this paper, we propose a method inspired by the “mixture of experts” paradigm. We assume that the prediction of the rumor class label given an instance is dependent on the topic distribution of the instance. After deriving a vector representation for each topic, given an instance, we derive a “topic mixture” vector for the instance based on its topic distribution. This topic mixture is combined with the vector representation of the instance itself to make rumor predictions. Our experiments show that our proposed method can outperform two baseline debiasing methods in a cross-topic setting. In a synthetic setting when we removed topic-specific words, our method also works better than the baselines, showing that our method does not rely on superficial features.
The prevalent use of social media enables rapid spread of rumors on a massive scale, which leads to the emerging need of automatic rumor verification (RV). A number of previous studies focus on leveraging stance classification to enhance RV with multi-task learning (MTL) methods. However, most of these methods failed to employ pre-trained contextualized embeddings such as BERT, and did not exploit inter-task dependencies by using predicted stance labels to improve the RV task. Therefore, in this paper, to extend BERT to obtain thread representations, we first propose a Hierarchical Transformer, which divides each long thread into shorter subthreads, and employs BERT to separately represent each subthread, followed by a global Transformer layer to encode all the subthreads. We further propose a Coupled Transformer Module to capture the inter-task interactions and a Post-Level Attention layer to use the predicted stance labels for RV, respectively. Experiments on two benchmark datasets show the superiority of our Coupled Hierarchical Transformer model over existing MTL approaches.
In this paper, we investigate the importance of social network information compared to content information in the prediction of a Twitter user’s occupational class. We show that the content information of a user’s tweets, the profile descriptions of a user’s follower/following community, and the user’s social network provide useful information for classifying a user’s occupational group. In our study, we extend an existing data set for this problem, and we achieve significantly better performance by using social network homophily that has not been fully exploited in previous work. In our analysis, we found that by using the graph convolutional network to exploit social homophily, we can achieve competitive performance on this data set with just a small fraction of the training data.
In this paper, we study how to improve the domain adaptability of a deletion-based Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) neural network model for sentence compression. We hypothesize that syntactic information helps in making such models more robust across domains. We propose two major changes to the model: using explicit syntactic features and introducing syntactic constraints through Integer Linear Programming (ILP). Our evaluation shows that the proposed model works better than the original model as well as a traditional non-neural-network-based model in a cross-domain setting.
Singlish can be interesting to the ACL community both linguistically as a major creole based on English, and computationally for information extraction and sentiment analysis of regional social media. We investigate dependency parsing of Singlish by constructing a dependency treebank under the Universal Dependencies scheme, and then training a neural network model by integrating English syntactic knowledge into a state-of-the-art parser trained on the Singlish treebank. Results show that English knowledge can lead to 25% relative error reduction, resulting in a parser of 84.47% accuracies. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to use neural stacking to improve cross-lingual dependency parsing on low-resource languages. We make both our annotation and parser available for further research.