Hai Ye


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Multi-Source Test-Time Adaptation as Dueling Bandits for Extractive Question Answering
Hai Ye | Qizhe Xie | Hwee Tou Ng
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this work, we study multi-source test-time model adaptation from user feedback, where K distinct models are established for adaptation. To allow efficient adaptation, we cast the problem as a stochastic decision-making process, aiming to determine the best adapted model after adaptation. We discuss two frameworks: multi-armed bandit learning and multi-armed dueling bandits. Compared to multi-armed bandit learning, the dueling framework allows pairwise collaboration among K models, which is solved by a novel method named Co-UCB proposed in this work. Experiments on six datasets of extractive question answering (QA) show that the dueling framework using Co-UCB is more effective than other strong baselines for our studied problem.

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Isotropic Representation Can Improve Zero-Shot Cross-Lingual Transfer on Multilingual Language Models
Yixin Ji | Jikai Wang | Juntao Li | Hai Ye | Min Zhang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

With the development of multilingual pre-trained language models (mPLMs), zero-shot cross-lingual transfer shows great potential. To further improve the performance of cross-lingual transfer, many studies have explored representation misalignment caused by morphological differences but neglected the misalignment caused by the anisotropic distribution of contextual representations. In this work, we propose enhanced isotropy and constrained code-switching for zero-shot cross-lingual transfer to alleviate the problem of misalignment caused by the anisotropic representations and maintain syntactic structural knowledge. Extensive experiments on three zero-shot cross-lingual transfer tasks demonstrate that our method gains significant improvements over strong mPLM backbones and further improves the state-of-the-art methods.

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Beware of Model Collapse! Fast and Stable Test-time Adaptation for Robust Question Answering
Yi Su | Yixin Ji | Juntao Li | Hai Ye | Min Zhang
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Although pre-trained language models (PLM) have achieved great success in question answering (QA), their robustness is still insufficient to support their practical applications, especially in the face of distribution shifts. Recently, test-time adaptation (TTA) has shown great potential for solving this problem, which adapts the model to fit the test samples at test time. However, TTA sometimes causes model collapse, making almost all the model outputs incorrect, which has raised concerns about its stability and reliability. In this paper, we delve into why TTA causes model collapse and find that the imbalanced label distribution inherent in QA is the reason for it. To address this problem, we propose Anti-Collapse Fast test-time adaptation (Anti-CF), which utilizes the source model‘s output to regularize the update of the adapted model during test time. We further design an efficient side block to reduce its inference time. Extensive experiments on various distribution shift scenarios and pre-trained language models (e.g., XLM-RoBERTa, BLOOM) demonstrate that our method can achieve comparable or better results than previous TTA methods at a speed close to vanilla forward propagation, which is 1.8× to 4.4× speedup compared to previous TTA methods.


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On the Robustness of Question Rewriting Systems to Questions of Varying Hardness
Hai Ye | Hwee Tou Ng | Wenjuan Han
Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In conversational question answering (CQA), the task of question rewriting (QR) in context aims to rewrite a context-dependent question into an equivalent self-contained question that gives the same answer. In this paper, we are interested in the robustness of a QR system to questions varying in rewriting hardness or difficulty. Since there is a lack of questions classified based on their rewriting hardness, we first propose a heuristic method to automatically classify questions into subsets of varying hardness, by measuring the discrepancy between a question and its rewrite. To find out what makes questions hard or easy for rewriting, we then conduct a human evaluation to annotate the rewriting hardness of questions. Finally, to enhance the robustness of QR systems to questions of varying hardness, we propose a novel learning framework for QR that first trains a QR model independently on each subset of questions of a certain level of hardness, then combines these QR models as one joint model for inference. Experimental results on two datasets show that our framework improves the overall performance compared to the baselines.

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Robust Question Answering against Distribution Shifts with Test-Time Adaption: An Empirical Study
Hai Ye | Yuyang Ding | Juntao Li | Hwee Tou Ng
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

A deployed question answering (QA) model can easily fail when the test data has a distribution shift compared to the training data. Robustness tuning (RT) methods have been widely studied to enhance model robustness against distribution shifts before model deployment. However, can we improve a model after deployment? To answer this question, we evaluate test-time adaptation (TTA) to improve a model after deployment. We first introduce ColdQA, a unified evaluation benchmark for robust QA against text corruption and changes in language and domain. We then evaluate previous TTA methods on ColdQA and compare them to RT methods. We also propose a novel TTA method called online imitation learning (OIL). Through extensive experiments, we find that TTA is comparable to RT methods, and applying TTA after RT can significantly boost the performance on ColdQA. Our proposed OIL improves TTA to be more robust to variation in hyper-parameters and test distributions over time.


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On the Effectiveness of Adapter-based Tuning for Pretrained Language Model Adaptation
Ruidan He | Linlin Liu | Hai Ye | Qingyu Tan | Bosheng Ding | Liying Cheng | Jiawei Low | Lidong Bing | Luo Si
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Adapter-based tuning has recently arisen as an alternative to fine-tuning. It works by adding light-weight adapter modules to a pretrained language model (PrLM) and only updating the parameters of adapter modules when learning on a downstream task. As such, it adds only a few trainable parameters per new task, allowing a high degree of parameter sharing. Prior studies have shown that adapter-based tuning often achieves comparable results to fine-tuning. However, existing work only focuses on the parameter-efficient aspect of adapter-based tuning while lacking further investigation on its effectiveness. In this paper, we study the latter. We first show that adapter-based tuning better mitigates forgetting issues than fine-tuning since it yields representations with less deviation from those generated by the initial PrLM. We then empirically compare the two tuning methods on several downstream NLP tasks and settings. We demonstrate that 1) adapter-based tuning outperforms fine-tuning on low-resource and cross-lingual tasks; 2) it is more robust to overfitting and less sensitive to changes in learning rates.


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Feature Adaptation of Pre-Trained Language Models across Languages and Domains with Robust Self-Training
Hai Ye | Qingyu Tan | Ruidan He | Juntao Li | Hwee Tou Ng | Lidong Bing
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Adapting pre-trained language models (PrLMs) (e.g., BERT) to new domains has gained much attention recently. Instead of fine-tuning PrLMs as done in most previous work, we investigate how to adapt the features of PrLMs to new domains without fine-tuning. We explore unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) in this paper. With the features from PrLMs, we adapt the models trained with labeled data from the source domain to the unlabeled target domain. Self-training is widely used for UDA, and it predicts pseudo labels on the target domain data for training. However, the predicted pseudo labels inevitably include noise, which will negatively affect training a robust model. To improve the robustness of self-training, in this paper we present class-aware feature self-distillation (CFd) to learn discriminative features from PrLMs, in which PrLM features are self-distilled into a feature adaptation module and the features from the same class are more tightly clustered. We further extend CFd to a cross-language setting, in which language discrepancy is studied. Experiments on two monolingual and multilingual Amazon review datasets show that CFd can consistently improve the performance of self-training in cross-domain and cross-language settings.


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Jointly Learning Semantic Parser and Natural Language Generator via Dual Information Maximization
Hai Ye | Wenjie Li | Lu Wang
Proceedings of the 57th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Semantic parsing aims to transform natural language (NL) utterances into formal meaning representations (MRs), whereas an NL generator achieves the reverse: producing an NL description for some given MRs. Despite this intrinsic connection, the two tasks are often studied separately in prior work. In this paper, we model the duality of these two tasks via a joint learning framework, and demonstrate its effectiveness of boosting the performance on both tasks. Concretely, we propose a novel method of dual information maximization (DIM) to regularize the learning process, where DIM empirically maximizes the variational lower bounds of expected joint distributions of NL and MRs. We further extend DIM to a semi-supervision setup (SemiDIM), which leverages unlabeled data of both tasks. Experiments on three datasets of dialogue management and code generation (and summarization) show that performance on both semantic parsing and NL generation can be consistently improved by DIM, in both supervised and semi-supervised setups.


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Semi-Supervised Learning for Neural Keyphrase Generation
Hai Ye | Lu Wang
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

We study the problem of generating keyphrases that summarize the key points for a given document. While sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models have achieved remarkable performance on this task (Meng et al., 2017), model training often relies on large amounts of labeled data, which is only applicable to resource-rich domains. In this paper, we propose semi-supervised keyphrase generation methods by leveraging both labeled data and large-scale unlabeled samples for learning. Two strategies are proposed. First, unlabeled documents are first tagged with synthetic keyphrases obtained from unsupervised keyphrase extraction methods or a self-learning algorithm, and then combined with labeled samples for training. Furthermore, we investigate a multi-task learning framework to jointly learn to generate keyphrases as well as the titles of the articles. Experimental results show that our semi-supervised learning-based methods outperform a state-of-the-art model trained with labeled data only.

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Interpretable Rationale Augmented Charge Prediction System
Xin Jiang | Hai Ye | Zhunchen Luo | WenHan Chao | Wenjia Ma
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: System Demonstrations

This paper proposes a neural based system to solve the essential interpretability problem existing in text classification, especially in charge prediction task. First, we use a deep reinforcement learning method to extract rationales which mean short, readable and decisive snippets from input text. Then a rationale augmented classification model is proposed to elevate the prediction accuracy. Naturally, the extracted rationales serve as the introspection explanation for the prediction result of the model, enhancing the transparency of the model. Experimental results demonstrate that our system is able to extract readable rationales in a high consistency with manual annotation and is comparable with the attention model in prediction accuracy.

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Interpretable Charge Predictions for Criminal Cases: Learning to Generate Court Views from Fact Descriptions
Hai Ye | Xin Jiang | Zhunchen Luo | Wenhan Chao
Proceedings of the 2018 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long Papers)

In this paper, we propose to study the problem of court view generation from the fact description in a criminal case. The task aims to improve the interpretability of charge prediction systems and help automatic legal document generation. We formulate this task as a text-to-text natural language generation (NLG) problem. Sequence-to-sequence model has achieved cutting-edge performances in many NLG tasks. However, due to the non-distinctions of fact descriptions, it is hard for Seq2Seq model to generate charge-discriminative court views. In this work, we explore charge labels to tackle this issue. We propose a label-conditioned Seq2Seq model with attention for this problem, to decode court views conditioned on encoded charge labels. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method.


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Jointly Extracting Relations with Class Ties via Effective Deep Ranking
Hai Ye | Wenhan Chao | Zhunchen Luo | Zhoujun Li
Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Connections between relations in relation extraction, which we call class ties, are common. In distantly supervised scenario, one entity tuple may have multiple relation facts. Exploiting class ties between relations of one entity tuple will be promising for distantly supervised relation extraction. However, previous models are not effective or ignore to model this property. In this work, to effectively leverage class ties, we propose to make joint relation extraction with a unified model that integrates convolutional neural network (CNN) with a general pairwise ranking framework, in which three novel ranking loss functions are introduced. Additionally, an effective method is presented to relieve the severe class imbalance problem from NR (not relation) for model training. Experiments on a widely used dataset show that leveraging class ties will enhance extraction and demonstrate the effectiveness of our model to learn class ties. Our model outperforms the baselines significantly, achieving state-of-the-art performance.