Haithem Afli


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Design of an Open-Source Architecture for Neural Machine Translation
Séamus Lankford | Haithem Afli | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Open Community-Driven Machine Translation

adaptNMT is an open-source application that offers a streamlined approach to the development and deployment of Recurrent Neural Networks and Transformer models. This application is built upon the widely-adopted OpenNMT ecosystem, and is particularly useful for new entrants to the field, as it simplifies the setup of the development environment and creation of train, validation, and test splits. The application offers a graphing feature that illustrates the progress of model training, and employs SentencePiece for creating subword segmentation models. Furthermore, the application provides an intuitive user interface that facilitates hyperparameter customization. Notably, a single-click model development approach has been implemented, and models developed by adaptNMT can be evaluated using a range of metrics. To encourage eco-friendly research, adaptNMT incorporates a green report that flags the power consumption and kgCO2 emissions generated during model development. The application is freely available.


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gaHealth: An English–Irish Bilingual Corpus of Health Data
Séamus Lankford | Haithem Afli | Órla Ní Loinsigh | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Machine Translation is a mature technology for many high-resource language pairs. However in the context of low-resource languages, there is a paucity of parallel data datasets available for developing translation models. Furthermore, the development of datasets for low-resource languages often focuses on simply creating the largest possible dataset for generic translation. The benefits and development of smaller in-domain datasets can easily be overlooked. To assess the merits of using in-domain data, a dataset for the specific domain of health was developed for the low-resource English to Irish language pair. Our study outlines the process used in developing the corpus and empirically demonstrates the benefits of using an in-domain dataset for the health domain. In the context of translating health-related data, models developed using the gaHealth corpus demonstrated a maximum BLEU score improvement of 22.2 points (40%) when compared with top performing models from the LoResMT2021 Shared Task. Furthermore, we define linguistic guidelines for developing gaHealth, the first bilingual corpus of health data for the Irish language, which we hope will be of use to other creators of low-resource data sets. gaHealth is now freely available online and is ready to be explored for further research.

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TF-IDF or Transformers for Arabic Dialect Identification? ITFLOWS participation in the NADI 2022 Shared Task
Fouad Shammary | Yiyi Chen | Zsolt T Kardkovacs | Mehwish Alam | Haithem Afli
Proceedings of the The Seventh Arabic Natural Language Processing Workshop (WANLP)

This study targets the shared task of Nuanced Arabic Dialect Identification (NADI) organized with the Workshop on Arabic Natural Language Processing (WANLP). It further focuses on Subtask 1 on the identification of the Arabic dialects at the country level. More specifically, it studies the impact of a traditional approach such as TF-IDF and then moves on to study the impact of advanced deep learning based methods. These methods include fully fine-tuning MARBERT as well as adapter based fine-tuning of MARBERT with and without performing data augmentation. The evaluation shows that the traditional approach based on TF-IDF scores the best in terms of accuracy on TEST-A dataset, while, the fine-tuned MARBERT with adapter on augmented data scores the second on Macro F1-score on the TEST-B dataset. This led to the proposed system being ranked second on the shared task on average.

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Proceedings of the LREC 2022 workshop on Natural Language Processing for Political Sciences
Haithem Afli | Mehwish Alam | Houda Bouamor | Cristina Blasi Casagran | Colleen Boland | Sahar Ghannay
Proceedings of the LREC 2022 workshop on Natural Language Processing for Political Sciences

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TransCasm: A Bilingual Corpus of Sarcastic Tweets
Desline Simon | Sheila Castilho | Pintu Lohar | Haithem Afli
Proceedings of the LREC 2022 workshop on Natural Language Processing for Political Sciences

Sarcasm is extensively used in User Generated Content (UGC) in order to express one’s discontent, especially through blogs, forums, or social media such as Twitter. Several works have attempted to detect and analyse sarcasm in UGC. However, the lack of freely available corpora in this field makes the task even more difficult. In this work, we present “TransCasm” corpus, a parallel corpus of sarcastic tweets translated from English into French along with their non-sarcastic representations. To build the bilingual corpus of sarcasm, we select the “SIGN” corpus, a monolingual data set of sarcastic tweets and their non-sarcastic interpretations, created by (Peled and Reichart, 2017). We propose to define linguistic guidelines for developing “TransCasm” which is the first ever bilingual corpus of sarcastic tweets. In addition, we utilise “TransCasm” for building a binary sarcasm classifier in order to identify whether a tweet is sarcastic or not. Our experiment reveals that the sarcasm classifier achieves 61% accuracy on detecting sarcasm in tweets. “TransCasm” is now freely available online and is ready to be explored for further research.


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Machine Translation in the Covid domain: an English-Irish case study for LoResMT 2021
Seamus Lankford | Haithem Afli | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Technologies for MT of Low Resource Languages (LoResMT2021)

Translation models for the specific domain of translating Covid data from English to Irish were developed for the LoResMT 2021 shared task. Domain adaptation techniques, using a Covid-adapted generic 55k corpus from the Directorate General of Translation, were applied. Fine-tuning, mixed fine-tuning and combined dataset approaches were compared with models trained on an extended in-domain dataset. As part of this study, an English-Irish dataset of Covid related data, from the Health and Education domains, was developed. The highestperforming model used a Transformer architecture trained with an extended in-domain Covid dataset. In the context of this study, we have demonstrated that extending an 8k in-domain baseline dataset by just 5k lines improved the BLEU score by 27 points.


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Hierarchical Deep Learning for Arabic Dialect Identification
Gael de Francony | Victor Guichard | Praveen Joshi | Haithem Afli | Abdessalam Bouchekif
Proceedings of the Fourth Arabic Natural Language Processing Workshop

In this paper, we present two approaches for Arabic Fine-Grained Dialect Identification. The first approach is based on Recurrent Neural Networks (BLSTM, BGRU) using hierarchical classification. The main idea is to separate the classification process for a sentence from a given text in two stages. We start with a higher level of classification (8 classes) and then the finer-grained classification (26 classes). The second approach is given by a voting system based on Naive Bayes and Random Forest. Our system achieves an F1 score of 63.02 % on the subtask evaluation dataset.

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Proceedings of the Qualities of Literary Machine Translation
James Hadley | Maja Popović | Haithem Afli | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Qualities of Literary Machine Translation

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EPITA-ADAPT at SemEval-2019 Task 3: Detecting emotions in textual conversations using deep learning models combination
Abdessalam Bouchekif | Praveen Joshi | Latifa Bouchekif | Haithem Afli
Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation

Messaging platforms like WhatsApp, Facebook Messenger and Twitter have gained recently much popularity owing to their ability in connecting users in real-time. The content of these textual messages can be a useful resource for text mining to discover and unhide various aspects, including emotions. In this paper we present our submission for SemEval 2019 task ‘EmoContext’. The task consists of classifying a given textual dialogue into one of four emotion classes: Angry, Happy, Sad and Others. Our proposed system is based on the combination of different deep neural networks techniques. In particular, we use Recurrent Neural Networks (LSTM, B-LSTM, GRU, B-GRU), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Transfer Learning (TL) methodes. Our final system, achieves an F1 score of 74.51% on the subtask evaluation dataset.


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Balancing Translation Quality and Sentiment Preservation (Non-archival Extended Abstract)
Pintu Lohar | Haithem Afli | Andy Way
Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (Volume 1: Research Track)

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FooTweets: A Bilingual Parallel Corpus of World Cup Tweets
Henny Sluyter-Gäthje | Pintu Lohar | Haithem Afli | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Eleventh International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC 2018)


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ADAPT at IJCNLP-2017 Task 4: A Multinomial Naive Bayes Classification Approach for Customer Feedback Analysis task
Pintu Lohar | Koel Dutta Chowdhury | Haithem Afli | Mohammed Hasanuzzaman | Andy Way
Proceedings of the IJCNLP 2017, Shared Tasks

In this age of the digital economy, promoting organisations attempt their best to engage the customers in the feedback provisioning process. With the assistance of customer insights, an organisation can develop a better product and provide a better service to its customer. In this paper, we analyse the real world samples of customer feedback from Microsoft Office customers in four languages, i.e., English, French, Spanish and Japanese and conclude a five-plus-one-classes categorisation (comment, request, bug, complaint, meaningless and undetermined) for meaning classification. The task is to %access multilingual corpora annotated by the proposed meaning categorization scheme and develop a system to determine what class(es) the customer feedback sentences should be annotated as in four languages. We propose following approaches to accomplish this task: (i) a multinomial naive bayes (MNB) approach for multi-label classification, (ii) MNB with one-vs-rest classifier approach, and (iii) the combination of the multilabel classification-based and the sentiment classification-based approach. Our best system produces F-scores of 0.67, 0.83, 0.72 and 0.7 for English, Spanish, French and Japanese, respectively. The results are competitive to the best ones for all languages and secure 3rd and 5th position for Japanese and French, respectively, among all submitted systems.

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Identifying Effective Translations for Cross-lingual Arabic-to-English User-generated Speech Search
Ahmad Khwileh | Haithem Afli | Gareth Jones | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Third Arabic Natural Language Processing Workshop

Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) systems are a valuable tool to enable speakers of one language to search for content of interest expressed in a different language. A group for whom this is of particular interest is bilingual Arabic speakers who wish to search for English language content using information needs expressed in Arabic queries. A key challenge in CLIR is crossing the language barrier between the query and the documents. The most common approach to bridging this gap is automated query translation, which can be unreliable for vague or short queries. In this work, we examine the potential for improving CLIR effectiveness by predicting the translation effectiveness using Query Performance Prediction (QPP) techniques. We propose a novel QPP method to estimate the quality of translation for an Arabic-English Cross-lingual User-generated Speech Search (CLUGS) task. We present an empirical evaluation that demonstrates the quality of our method on alternative translation outputs extracted from an Arabic-to-English Machine Translation system developed for this task. Finally, we show how this framework can be integrated in CLUGS to find relevant translations for improved retrieval performance.

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Proceedings of the First Workshop on Curation and Applications of Parallel and Comparable Corpora
Haithem Afli | Chao-Hong Liu
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Curation and Applications of Parallel and Comparable Corpora

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MultiNews: A Web collection of an Aligned Multimodal and Multilingual Corpus
Haithem Afli | Pintu Lohar | Andy Way
Proceedings of the First Workshop on Curation and Applications of Parallel and Comparable Corpora

Integrating Natural Language Processing (NLP) and computer vision is a promising effort. However, the applicability of these methods directly depends on the availability of a specific multimodal data that includes images and texts. In this paper, we present a collection of a Multimodal corpus of comparable texts and their images in 9 languages from the web news articles of Euronews website. This corpus has found widespread use in the NLP community in Multilingual and multimodal tasks. Here, we focus on its acquisition of the images and text data and their multilingual alignment.


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Using SMT for OCR Error Correction of Historical Texts
Haithem Afli | Zhengwei Qiu | Andy Way | Páraic Sheridan
Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'16)

A trend to digitize historical paper-based archives has emerged in recent years, with the advent of digital optical scanners. A lot of paper-based books, textbooks, magazines, articles, and documents are being transformed into electronic versions that can be manipulated by a computer. For this purpose, Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems have been developed to transform scanned digital text into editable computer text. However, different kinds of errors in the OCR system output text can be found, but Automatic Error Correction tools can help in performing the quality of electronic texts by cleaning and removing noises. In this paper, we perform a qualitative and quantitative comparison of several error-correction techniques for historical French documents. Experimentation shows that our Machine Translation for Error Correction method is superior to other Language Modelling correction techniques, with nearly 13% relative improvement compared to the initial baseline.

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The ADAPT Bilingual Document Alignment system at WMT16
Pintu Lohar | Haithem Afli | Chao-Hong Liu | Andy Way
Proceedings of the First Conference on Machine Translation: Volume 2, Shared Task Papers

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Integrating Optical Character Recognition and Machine Translation of Historical Documents
Haithem Afli | Andy Way
Proceedings of the Workshop on Language Technology Resources and Tools for Digital Humanities (LT4DH)

Machine Translation (MT) plays a critical role in expanding capacity in the translation industry. However, many valuable documents, including digital documents, are encoded in non-accessible formats for machine processing (e.g., Historical or Legal documents). Such documents must be passed through a process of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to render the text suitable for MT. No matter how good the OCR is, this process introduces recognition errors, which often renders MT ineffective. In this paper, we propose a new OCR to MT framework based on adding a new OCR error correction module to enhance the overall quality of translation. Experimentation shows that our new system correction based on the combination of Language Modeling and Translation methods outperforms the baseline system by nearly 30% relative improvement.


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Multimodal Comparable Corpora as Resources for Extracting Parallel Data: Parallel Phrases Extraction
Haithem Afli | Loïc Barrault | Holger Schwenk
Proceedings of the Sixth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing


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Traduction automatique à partir de corpus comparables: extraction de phrases parallèles à partir de données comparables multimodales (Automatic Translation from Comparable corpora : extracting parallel sentences from multimodal comparable corpora) [in French]
Haithem Afli | Loïc Barrault | Holger Schwenk
Proceedings of the Joint Conference JEP-TALN-RECITAL 2012, volume 2: TALN


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LIUM’s SMT Machine Translation Systems for WMT 2011
Holger Schwenk | Patrik Lambert | Loïc Barrault | Christophe Servan | Sadaf Abdul-Rauf | Haithem Afli | Kashif Shah
Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation