Haiyang Xu


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UReader: Universal OCR-free Visually-situated Language Understanding with Multimodal Large Language Model
Jiabo Ye | Anwen Hu | Haiyang Xu | Qinghao Ye | Ming Yan | Guohai Xu | Chenliang Li | Junfeng Tian | Qi Qian | Ji Zhang | Qin Jin | Liang He | Xin Lin | Fei Huang
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2023

Text is ubiquitous in our visual world, conveying crucial information, such as in documents, websites, and everyday photographs. In this work, we propose UReader, a first exploration of universal OCR-free visually-situated language understanding based on the Multimodal Large Language Model (MLLM). By leveraging the shallow text recognition ability of the MLLM, we only finetuned 1.2% parameters and the training cost is much lower than previous work following domain-specific pretraining and finetuning paradigms. Concretely, UReader is jointly finetuned on a wide range of Visually-situated Language Understanding tasks via a unified instruction format. To enhance the visual text and semantic understanding, we further apply two auxiliary tasks with the same format, namely text reading and key points generation tasks. We design a shape-adaptive cropping module before the encoder-decoder architecture of MLLM to leverage the frozen low-resolution vision encoder for processing high-resolution images. Without downstream finetuning, our single model achieves state-of-the-art ocr-free performance in 8 out of 10 visually-situated language understanding tasks, across 5 domains: documents, tables, charts, natural images, and webpage screenshots. Codes and instruction-tuning datasets will be released.

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ModelScope-Agent: Building Your Customizable Agent System with Open-source Large Language Models
Chenliang Li | He Chen | Ming Yan | Weizhou Shen | Haiyang Xu | Zhikai Wu | Zhicheng Zhang | Wenmeng Zhou | Yingda Chen | Chen Cheng | Hongzhu Shi | Ji Zhang | Fei Huang | Jingren Zhou
Proceedings of the 2023 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing: System Demonstrations

Large language models (LLMs) have recently demonstrated remarkable capabilities to comprehend human intentions, engage in reasoning, and design planning-like behavior. To further unleash the power of LLMs to accomplish complex tasks, there is a growing trend to build agent frameworks that equips LLMs, such as ChatGPT, with tool-use abilities to connect with massive external APIs. In this work, we introduce ModelScope-Agent, a general and customizable agent framework for real-world applications, based on open-source LLMs as controllers. It provides a user-friendly system library, with a customizable engine design to support model training on multiple open-source LLMs, while also enabling seamless integration with both model APIs and common APIs in a unified way. To equip the LLMs with tool-use abilities, a comprehensive framework has been proposed spanning tool-use data collection, tool retrieval, tool registration, memory control, customized model training, and evaluation for practical real-world applications. Finally, we showcase ModelScopeGPT, a real-world intelligent assistant of ModelScope Community based on the ModelScope-Agent framework, which is able to connect open-source LLMs with more than 1000 public AI models and localized community knowledge in ModelScope. The ModelScope-Agent online demo, library are now publicly available.

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Transforming Visual Scene Graphs to Image Captions
Xu Yang | Jiawei Peng | Zihua Wang | Haiyang Xu | Qinghao Ye | Chenliang Li | Songfang Huang | Fei Huang | Zhangzikang Li | Yu Zhang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

We propose to TransForm Scene Graphs into more descriptive Captions (TFSGC). In TFSGC, we apply multi-head attention (MHA) to design the Graph Neural Network (GNN) for embedding scene graphs. After embedding, different graph embeddings contain diverse specific knowledge for generating the words with different part-of-speech, e.g., object/attribute embedding is good for generating nouns/adjectives. Motivated by this, we design a Mixture-of-Expert (MOE)-based decoder, where each expert is built on MHA, for discriminating the graph embeddings to generate different kinds of words. Since both the encoder and decoder are built based on the MHA, as a result, we construct a simple and homogeneous encoder-decoder unlike the previous heterogeneous ones which usually apply Fully-Connected-based GNN and LSTM-based decoder. The homogeneous architecture enables us to unify the training configuration of the whole model instead of specifying different training strategies for diverse sub-networks as in the heterogeneous pipeline, which releases the training difficulty. Extensive experiments on the MS-COCO captioning benchmark validate the effectiveness of our TFSGC. The code is in: https://anonymous.4open.science/r/ACL23_TFSGC.

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Vision Language Pre-training by Contrastive Learning with Cross-Modal Similarity Regulation
Chaoya Jiang | Wei Ye | Haiyang Xu | Songfang Huang | Fei Huang | Shikun Zhang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

In this paper, we reconsider the problem of (partial) false negative samples from the Mutual Information (MI) Maximization perspective, the traditional contrastive loss (like InfoNCE loss) will equally push away the anchor of all positive samples and negative samples regardless of their possible semantic similarities. We theoretically show that InfoNCE loss will not only maximize the MI between the anchor and positive samples but minimize the MI between the anchor and false negative samples even though they share similar semantic which could provide a possible theoretical explanation for the observation of the existence of false negative samples in the cross-modal contrastive learning will decrease the downstream task performance of VLP models. Above analysis motivate us to propose the VLP model with a novel Semantic Awared Contrastive Learning framework named SACL where different negative samples are assigned with different contrastive weights according to the semantic similarity between them and the anchor.

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Towards Adaptive Prefix Tuning for Parameter-Efficient Language Model Fine-tuning
Zhen-Ru Zhang | Chuanqi Tan | Haiyang Xu | Chengyu Wang | Jun Huang | Songfang Huang
Proceedings of the 61st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 2: Short Papers)

Fine-tuning large pre-trained language models on various downstream tasks with whole parameters is prohibitively expensive. Hence, Parameter-efficient fine-tuning has attracted attention that only optimizes a few task-specific parameters with the frozen pre-trained model. In this work, we focus on prefix tuning, which only optimizes continuous prefix vectors (i.e. pseudo tokens) inserted into Transformer layers. Based on the observation that the learned syntax and semantics representation varies a lot at different layers, we argue that the adaptive prefix will be further tailored to each layer than the fixed one, enabling the fine-tuning more effective and efficient. Thus, we propose Adaptive Prefix Tuning (APT) to adjust the prefix in terms of both fine-grained token level and coarse-grained layer level with a gate mechanism. Experiments on the SuperGLUE and NER datasets show the effectiveness of APT. In addition, taking the gate as a probing, we validate the efficiency and effectiveness of the variable prefix.


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TRIPS: Efficient Vision-and-Language Pre-training with Text-Relevant Image Patch Selection
Chaoya Jiang | Haiyang Xu | Chenliang Li | Ming Yan | Wei Ye | Shikun Zhang | Bin Bi | Songfang Huang
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Vision Transformers (ViTs) have been widely used in large-scale Vision and Language Pre-training (VLP) models. Though previous VLP works have proved the effectiveness of ViTs, they still suffer from computational efficiency brought by the long visual sequence. To tackle this problem, in this paper, we propose an efficient vision-and-language pre-training model with Text-Relevant Image Patch Selection, namely TRIPS, which reduces the visual sequence progressively with a text-guided patch-selection layer in the visual backbone for efficient training and inference. The patch-selection layer can dynamically compute text-dependent visual attention to identify the attentive image tokens with text guidance and fuse inattentive ones in an end-to-end manner. Meanwhile, TRIPS does not introduce extra parameters to ViTs. Experimental results on a variety of popular benchmark datasets demonstrate that TRIPS gain a speedup of 40% over previous similar VLP models, yet with competitive or better downstream task performance.

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mPLUG: Effective and Efficient Vision-Language Learning by Cross-modal Skip-connections
Chenliang Li | Haiyang Xu | Junfeng Tian | Wei Wang | Ming Yan | Bin Bi | Jiabo Ye | He Chen | Guohai Xu | Zheng Cao | Ji Zhang | Songfang Huang | Fei Huang | Jingren Zhou | Luo Si
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Large-scale pre-trained foundation models have been an emerging paradigm for building artificial intelligence (AI) systems, which can be quickly adapted to a wide range of downstream tasks. This paper presents mPLUG, a new vision-language foundation model for both cross-modal understanding and generation. Most existing pre-trained models suffer from inefficiency and linguistic signal overwhelmed by long visual sequences in cross-modal alignment. To address both problems, mPLUG introduces an effective and efficient vision-language architecture with novel cross-modal skip-connections.mPLUG is pre-trained end-to-end on large-scale image-text pairs with both discriminative and generative objectives. It achieves state-of-the-art results on a wide range of vision-language downstream tasks, including image captioning, image-text retrieval, visual grounding and visual question answering. mPLUG also demonstrates strong zero-shot transferability on vision-language and video-language tasks. The code and pre-trained models are available at https://github.com/alibaba/AliceMind


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E2E-VLP: End-to-End Vision-Language Pre-training Enhanced by Visual Learning
Haiyang Xu | Ming Yan | Chenliang Li | Bin Bi | Songfang Huang | Wenming Xiao | Fei Huang
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (Volume 1: Long Papers)

Vision-language pre-training (VLP) on large-scale image-text pairs has achieved huge success for the cross-modal downstream tasks. The most existing pre-training methods mainly adopt a two-step training procedure, which firstly employs a pre-trained object detector to extract region-based visual features, then concatenates the image representation and text embedding as the input of Transformer to train. However, these methods face problems of using task-specific visual representation of the specific object detector for generic cross-modal understanding, and the computation inefficiency of two-stage pipeline. In this paper, we propose the first end-to-end vision-language pre-trained model for both V+L understanding and generation, namely E2E-VLP, where we build a unified Transformer framework to jointly learn visual representation, and semantic alignments between image and text. We incorporate the tasks of object detection and image captioning into pre-training with a unified Transformer encoder-decoder architecture for enhancing visual learning. An extensive set of experiments have been conducted on well-established vision-language downstream tasks to demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel VLP paradigm.


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Neural Topic Modeling with Bidirectional Adversarial Training
Rui Wang | Xuemeng Hu | Deyu Zhou | Yulan He | Yuxuan Xiong | Chenchen Ye | Haiyang Xu
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics

Recent years have witnessed a surge of interests of using neural topic models for automatic topic extraction from text, since they avoid the complicated mathematical derivations for model inference as in traditional topic models such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). However, these models either typically assume improper prior (e.g. Gaussian or Logistic Normal) over latent topic space or could not infer topic distribution for a given document. To address these limitations, we propose a neural topic modeling approach, called Bidirectional Adversarial Topic (BAT) model, which represents the first attempt of applying bidirectional adversarial training for neural topic modeling. The proposed BAT builds a two-way projection between the document-topic distribution and the document-word distribution. It uses a generator to capture the semantic patterns from texts and an encoder for topic inference. Furthermore, to incorporate word relatedness information, the Bidirectional Adversarial Topic model with Gaussian (Gaussian-BAT) is extended from BAT. To verify the effectiveness of BAT and Gaussian-BAT, three benchmark corpora are used in our experiments. The experimental results show that BAT and Gaussian-BAT obtain more coherent topics, outperforming several competitive baselines. Moreover, when performing text clustering based on the extracted topics, our models outperform all the baselines, with more significant improvements achieved by Gaussian-BAT where an increase of near 6% is observed in accuracy.


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An Unsupervised Bayesian Modelling Approach for Storyline Detection on News Articles
Deyu Zhou | Haiyang Xu | Yulan He
Proceedings of the 2015 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing