Haiyue Song


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When do Contrastive Word Alignments Improve Many-to-many Neural Machine Translation?
Zhuoyuan Mao | Chenhui Chu | Raj Dabre | Haiyue Song | Zhen Wan | Sadao Kurohashi
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Word alignment has proven to benefit many-to-many neural machine translation (NMT). However, high-quality ground-truth bilingual dictionaries were used for pre-editing in previous methods, which are unavailable for most language pairs. Meanwhile, the contrastive objective can implicitly utilize automatically learned word alignment, which has not been explored in many-to-many NMT. This work proposes a word-level contrastive objective to leverage word alignments for many-to-many NMT. Empirical results show that this leads to 0.8 BLEU gains for several language pairs. Analyses reveal that in many-to-many NMT, the encoder’s sentence retrieval performance highly correlates with the translation quality, which explains when the proposed method impacts translation. This motivates future exploration for many-to-many NMT to improve the encoder’s sentence retrieval performance.


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Video-guided Machine Translation with Spatial Hierarchical Attention Network
Weiqi Gu | Haiyue Song | Chenhui Chu | Sadao Kurohashi
Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 11th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing: Student Research Workshop

Video-guided machine translation, as one type of multimodal machine translations, aims to engage video contents as auxiliary information to address the word sense ambiguity problem in machine translation. Previous studies only use features from pretrained action detection models as motion representations of the video to solve the verb sense ambiguity, leaving the noun sense ambiguity a problem. To address this problem, we propose a video-guided machine translation system by using both spatial and motion representations in videos. For spatial features, we propose a hierarchical attention network to model the spatial information from object-level to video-level. Experiments on the VATEX dataset show that our system achieves 35.86 BLEU-4 score, which is 0.51 score higher than the single model of the SOTA method.


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Pre-training via Leveraging Assisting Languages for Neural Machine Translation
Haiyue Song | Raj Dabre | Zhuoyuan Mao | Fei Cheng | Sadao Kurohashi | Eiichiro Sumita
Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Student Research Workshop

Sequence-to-sequence (S2S) pre-training using large monolingual data is known to improve performance for various S2S NLP tasks. However, large monolingual corpora might not always be available for the languages of interest (LOI). Thus, we propose to exploit monolingual corpora of other languages to complement the scarcity of monolingual corpora for the LOI. We utilize script mapping (Chinese to Japanese) to increase the similarity (number of cognates) between the monolingual corpora of helping languages and LOI. An empirical case study of low-resource Japanese-English neural machine translation (NMT) reveals that leveraging large Chinese and French monolingual corpora can help overcome the shortage of Japanese and English monolingual corpora, respectively, for S2S pre-training. Using only Chinese and French monolingual corpora, we were able to improve Japanese-English translation quality by up to 8.5 BLEU in low-resource scenarios.

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Coursera Corpus Mining and Multistage Fine-Tuning for Improving Lectures Translation
Haiyue Song | Raj Dabre | Atsushi Fujita | Sadao Kurohashi
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Lectures translation is a case of spoken language translation and there is a lack of publicly available parallel corpora for this purpose. To address this, we examine a framework for parallel corpus mining which is a quick and effective way to mine a parallel corpus from publicly available lectures at Coursera. Our approach determines sentence alignments, relying on machine translation and cosine similarity over continuous-space sentence representations. We also show how to use the resulting corpora in a multistage fine-tuning based domain adaptation for high-quality lectures translation. For Japanese–English lectures translation, we extracted parallel data of approximately 40,000 lines and created development and test sets through manual filtering for benchmarking translation performance. We demonstrate that the mined corpus greatly enhances the quality of translation when used in conjunction with out-of-domain parallel corpora via multistage training. This paper also suggests some guidelines to gather and clean corpora, mine parallel sentences, address noise in the mined data, and create high-quality evaluation splits. For the sake of reproducibility, we have released our code for parallel data creation.

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JASS: Japanese-specific Sequence to Sequence Pre-training for Neural Machine Translation
Zhuoyuan Mao | Fabien Cromieres | Raj Dabre | Haiyue Song | Sadao Kurohashi
Proceedings of the 12th Language Resources and Evaluation Conference

Neural machine translation (NMT) needs large parallel corpora for state-of-the-art translation quality. Low-resource NMT is typically addressed by transfer learning which leverages large monolingual or parallel corpora for pre-training. Monolingual pre-training approaches such as MASS (MAsked Sequence to Sequence) are extremely effective in boosting NMT quality for languages with small parallel corpora. However, they do not account for linguistic information obtained using syntactic analyzers which is known to be invaluable for several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. To this end, we propose JASS, Japanese-specific Sequence to Sequence, as a novel pre-training alternative to MASS for NMT involving Japanese as the source or target language. JASS is joint BMASS (Bunsetsu MASS) and BRSS (Bunsetsu Reordering Sequence to Sequence) pre-training which focuses on Japanese linguistic units called bunsetsus. In our experiments on ASPEC Japanese–English and News Commentary Japanese–Russian translation we show that JASS can give results that are competitive with if not better than those given by MASS. Furthermore, we show for the first time that joint MASS and JASS pre-training gives results that significantly surpass the individual methods indicating their complementary nature. We will release our code, pre-trained models and bunsetsu annotated data as resources for researchers to use in their own NLP tasks.

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A System for Worldwide COVID-19 Information Aggregation
Akiko Aizawa | Frederic Bergeron | Junjie Chen | Fei Cheng | Katsuhiko Hayashi | Kentaro Inui | Hiroyoshi Ito | Daisuke Kawahara | Masaru Kitsuregawa | Hirokazu Kiyomaru | Masaki Kobayashi | Takashi Kodama | Sadao Kurohashi | Qianying Liu | Masaki Matsubara | Yusuke Miyao | Atsuyuki Morishima | Yugo Murawaki | Kazumasa Omura | Haiyue Song | Eiichiro Sumita | Shinji Suzuki | Ribeka Tanaka | Yu Tanaka | Masashi Toyoda | Nobuhiro Ueda | Honai Ueoka | Masao Utiyama | Ying Zhong
Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NLP for COVID-19 (Part 2) at EMNLP 2020

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has made the public pay close attention to related news, covering various domains, such as sanitation, treatment, and effects on education. Meanwhile, the COVID-19 condition is very different among the countries (e.g., policies and development of the epidemic), and thus citizens would be interested in news in foreign countries. We build a system for worldwide COVID-19 information aggregation containing reliable articles from 10 regions in 7 languages sorted by topics. Our reliable COVID-19 related website dataset collected through crowdsourcing ensures the quality of the articles. A neural machine translation module translates articles in other languages into Japanese and English. A BERT-based topic-classifier trained on our article-topic pair dataset helps users find their interested information efficiently by putting articles into different categories.