Han Guo


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Multi-stage Distillation Framework for Cross-Lingual Semantic Similarity Matching
Kunbo Ding | Weijie Liu | Yuejian Fang | Zhe Zhao | Qi Ju | Xuefeng Yang | Rong Tian | Zhu Tao | Haoyan Liu | Han Guo | Xingyu Bai | Weiquan Mao | Yudong Li | Weigang Guo | Taiqiang Wu | Ningyuan Sun
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: NAACL 2022

Previous studies have proved that cross-lingual knowledge distillation can significantly improve the performance of pre-trained models for cross-lingual similarity matching tasks. However, the student model needs to be large in this operation. Otherwise, its performance will drop sharply, thus making it impractical to be deployed to memory-limited devices. To address this issue, we delve into cross-lingual knowledge distillation and propose a multi-stage distillation framework for constructing a small-size but high-performance cross-lingual model. In our framework, contrastive learning, bottleneck, and parameter recurrent strategies are delicately combined to prevent performance from being compromised during the compression process. The experimental results demonstrate that our method can compress the size of XLM-R and MiniLM by more than 50%, while the performance is only reduced by about 1%.

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Efficient (Soft) Q-Learning for Text Generation with Limited Good Data
Han Guo | Bowen Tan | Zhengzhong Liu | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Findings of the Association for Computational Linguistics: EMNLP 2022

Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) is the predominant algorithm for training text generation models. This paradigm relies on direct supervision examples, which is not applicable to many emerging applications, such as generating adversarial attacks or generating prompts to control language models. Reinforcement learning (RL) on the other hand offers a more flexible solution by allowing users to plug in arbitrary task metrics as reward. Yet previous RL algorithms for text generation, such as policy gradient (on-policy RL) and Q-learning (off-policy RL), are often notoriously inefficient or unstable to train due to the large sequence space and the sparse reward received only at the end of sequences. In this paper, we introduce a new RL formulation for text generation from the soft Q-learning (SQL) perspective. It enables us to draw from the latest RL advances, such as path consistency learning, to combine the best of on-/off-policy updates, and learn effectively from sparse reward. We apply the approach to a wide range of novel text generation tasks, including learning from noisy/negative examples, adversarial attacks, and prompt generation. Experiments show our approach consistently outperforms both task-specialized algorithms and the previous RL methods.

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RLPrompt: Optimizing Discrete Text Prompts with Reinforcement Learning
Mingkai Deng | Jianyu Wang | Cheng-Ping Hsieh | Yihan Wang | Han Guo | Tianmin Shu | Meng Song | Eric Xing | Zhiting Hu
Proceedings of the 2022 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Prompting has shown impressive success in enabling large pre-trained language models (LMs) to perform diverse NLP tasks, especially with only few downstream data. Automatically finding the optimal prompt for each task, however, is challenging. Most existing work resorts to tuning *soft* prompts (e.g., embeddings) which fall short of interpretability, reusability across LMs, and applicability when gradients are not accessible. *Discrete* prompts, on the other hand, are difficult to optimize, and are often created by “enumeration (e.g., paraphrasing)-then-selection” heuristics that do not explore the prompt space systematically. This paper proposes RLPrompt, an efficient discrete prompt optimization approach with reinforcement learning (RL). RLPrompt formulates a parameter-efficient policy network that generates the optimized discrete prompt after training with reward. To harness the complex and stochastic reward signals from the large LM environment, we incorporate effective reward stabilization that substantially enhances training efficiency. RLPrompt is flexibly applicable to different types of LMs, such as masked (e.g., BERT) and left-to-right models (e.g., GPTs), for both classification and generation tasks. Experiments on few-shot classification and unsupervised text style transfer show superior performance over a wide range of existing fine-tuning or prompting methods. Interestingly, the resulting optimized prompts are often ungrammatical gibberish text; and surprisingly, those gibberish prompts are transferrable between different LMs to retain significant performance, indicating that LM prompting may not follow human language patterns.


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FastIF: Scalable Influence Functions for Efficient Model Interpretation and Debugging
Han Guo | Nazneen Rajani | Peter Hase | Mohit Bansal | Caiming Xiong
Proceedings of the 2021 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing

Influence functions approximate the “influences” of training data-points for test predictions and have a wide variety of applications. Despite the popularity, their computational cost does not scale well with model and training data size. We present FastIF, a set of simple modifications to influence functions that significantly improves their run-time. We use k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) to narrow the search space down to a subset of good candidate data points, identify the configurations that best balance the speed-quality trade-off in estimating the inverse Hessian-vector product, and introduce a fast parallel variant. Our proposed method achieves about 80X speedup while being highly correlated with the original influence values. With the availability of the fast influence functions, we demonstrate their usefulness in four applications. First, we examine whether influential data-points can “explain” test time behavior using the framework of simulatability. Second, we visualize the influence interactions between training and test data-points. Third, we show that we can correct model errors by additional fine-tuning on certain influential data-points, improving the accuracy of a trained MultiNLI model by 2.5% on the HANS dataset. Finally, we experiment with a similar setup but fine-tuning on datapoints not seen during training, improving the model accuracy by 2.8% and 1.7% on HANS and ANLI datasets respectively. Overall, our fast influence functions can be efficiently applied to large models and datasets, and our experiments demonstrate the potential of influence functions in model interpretation and correcting model errors.

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An Overview of Uncertainty Calibration for Text Classification and the Role of Distillation
Han Guo | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Representation Learning for NLP (RepL4NLP-2021)

Recent advances in NLP systems, notably the pretraining-and-finetuning paradigm, have achieved great success in predictive accuracy. However, these systems are usually not well calibrated for uncertainty out-of-the-box. Many recalibration methods have been proposed in the literature for quantifying predictive uncertainty and calibrating model outputs, with varying degrees of complexity. In this work, we present a systematic study of a few of these methods. Focusing on the text classification task and finetuned large pretrained language models, we first show that many of the finetuned models are not well calibrated out-of-the-box, especially when the data come from out-of-domain settings. Next, we compare the effectiveness of a few widely-used recalibration methods (such as ensembles, temperature scaling). Then, we empirically illustrate a connection between distillation and calibration. We view distillation as a regularization term encouraging the student model to output uncertainties that match those of a teacher model. With this insight, we develop simple recalibration methods based on distillation with no additional inference-time cost. We show on the GLUE benchmark that our simple methods can achieve competitive out-of-domain (OOD) calibration performance w.r.t. more expensive approaches. Finally, we include ablations to understand the usefulness of components of our proposed method and examine the transferability of calibration via distillation.


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DORB: Dynamically Optimizing Multiple Rewards with Bandits
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Han Guo | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2020 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP)

Policy gradients-based reinforcement learning has proven to be a promising approach for directly optimizing non-differentiable evaluation metrics for language generation tasks. However, optimizing for a specific metric reward leads to improvements in mostly that metric only, suggesting that the model is gaming the formulation of that metric in a particular way without often achieving real qualitative improvements. Hence, it is more beneficial to make the model optimize multiple diverse metric rewards jointly. While appealing, this is challenging because one needs to manually decide the importance and scaling weights of these metric rewards. Further, it is important to consider using a dynamic combination and curriculum of metric rewards that flexibly changes over time. Considering the above aspects, in our work, we automate the optimization of multiple metric rewards simultaneously via a multi-armed bandit approach (DORB), where at each round, the bandit chooses which metric reward to optimize next, based on expected arm gains. We use the Exp3 algorithm for bandits and formulate two approaches for bandit rewards: (1) Single Multi-reward Bandit (SM-Bandit); (2) Hierarchical Multi-reward Bandit (HM-Bandit). We empirically show the effectiveness of our approaches via various automatic metrics and human evaluation on two important NLG tasks: question generation and data-to-text generation. Finally, we present interpretable analyses of the learned bandit curriculum over the optimized rewards.


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AutoSeM: Automatic Task Selection and Mixing in Multi-Task Learning
Han Guo | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 2019 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Volume 1 (Long and Short Papers)

Multi-task learning (MTL) has achieved success over a wide range of problems, where the goal is to improve the performance of a primary task using a set of relevant auxiliary tasks. However, when the usefulness of the auxiliary tasks w.r.t. the primary task is not known a priori, the success of MTL models depends on the correct choice of these auxiliary tasks and also a balanced mixing ratio of these tasks during alternate training. These two problems could be resolved via manual intuition or hyper-parameter tuning over all combinatorial task choices, but this introduces inductive bias or is not scalable when the number of candidate auxiliary tasks is very large. To address these issues, we present AutoSeM, a two-stage MTL pipeline, where the first stage automatically selects the most useful auxiliary tasks via a Beta-Bernoulli multi-armed bandit with Thompson Sampling, and the second stage learns the training mixing ratio of these selected auxiliary tasks via a Gaussian Process based Bayesian optimization framework. We conduct several MTL experiments on the GLUE language understanding tasks, and show that our AutoSeM framework can successfully find relevant auxiliary tasks and automatically learn their mixing ratio, achieving significant performance boosts on several primary tasks. Finally, we present ablations for each stage of AutoSeM and analyze the learned auxiliary task choices.


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Dynamic Multi-Level Multi-Task Learning for Sentence Simplification
Han Guo | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Computational Linguistics

Sentence simplification aims to improve readability and understandability, based on several operations such as splitting, deletion, and paraphrasing. However, a valid simplified sentence should also be logically entailed by its input sentence. In this work, we first present a strong pointer-copy mechanism based sequence-to-sequence sentence simplification model, and then improve its entailment and paraphrasing capabilities via multi-task learning with related auxiliary tasks of entailment and paraphrase generation. Moreover, we propose a novel ‘multi-level’ layered soft sharing approach where each auxiliary task shares different (higher versus lower) level layers of the sentence simplification model, depending on the task’s semantic versus lexico-syntactic nature. We also introduce a novel multi-armed bandit based training approach that dynamically learns how to effectively switch across tasks during multi-task learning. Experiments on multiple popular datasets demonstrate that our model outperforms competitive simplification systems in SARI and FKGL automatic metrics, and human evaluation. Further, we present several ablation analyses on alternative layer sharing methods, soft versus hard sharing, dynamic multi-armed bandit sampling approaches, and our model’s learned entailment and paraphrasing skills.

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Soft Layer-Specific Multi-Task Summarization with Entailment and Question Generation
Han Guo | Ramakanth Pasunuru | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)

An accurate abstractive summary of a document should contain all its salient information and should be logically entailed by the input document. We improve these important aspects of abstractive summarization via multi-task learning with the auxiliary tasks of question generation and entailment generation, where the former teaches the summarization model how to look for salient questioning-worthy details, and the latter teaches the model how to rewrite a summary which is a directed-logical subset of the input document. We also propose novel multi-task architectures with high-level (semantic) layer-specific sharing across multiple encoder and decoder layers of the three tasks, as well as soft-sharing mechanisms (and show performance ablations and analysis examples of each contribution). Overall, we achieve statistically significant improvements over the state-of-the-art on both the CNN/DailyMail and Gigaword datasets, as well as on the DUC-2002 transfer setup. We also present several quantitative and qualitative analysis studies of our model’s learned saliency and entailment skills.


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Towards Improving Abstractive Summarization via Entailment Generation
Ramakanth Pasunuru | Han Guo | Mohit Bansal
Proceedings of the Workshop on New Frontiers in Summarization

Abstractive summarization, the task of rewriting and compressing a document into a short summary, has achieved considerable success with neural sequence-to-sequence models. However, these models can still benefit from stronger natural language inference skills, since a correct summary is logically entailed by the input document, i.e., it should not contain any contradictory or unrelated information. We incorporate such knowledge into an abstractive summarization model via multi-task learning, where we share its decoder parameters with those of an entailment generation model. We achieve promising initial improvements based on multiple metrics and datasets (including a test-only setting). The domain mismatch between the entailment (captions) and summarization (news) datasets suggests that the model is learning some domain-agnostic inference skills.